The quality of the closure of the upper and lower rows is an important factor that determines not only the aesthetics but also the functionality of the jaw region. Practitioners in the field of orthodontics note that deviations occur in more than 90% of cases of diagnosis – however, they are far from always so pronounced that medical intervention is required. The reasons causing disturbances in the development of the jaw are different – from a genetic predisposition to the systematic abuse of bad habits. What are the physiological types of the bite of teeth in dentistry, and what to do in situations where the examination indicates an incorrect occlusal closure? Let’s figure it out.
Occlusion is a medical term used to refer to the ratio of dentition. As part of the diagnostic measures, the orthodontist analyzes the general condition of the masticatory ligaments and muscles and evaluates the correct operation of the temporomandibular joint, as well as the position of the units during tight compression of the jaws. The final characteristic is determined by the indications of the clinical picture, allowing the classification of the current development and determining the need for treatment.
Varieties and characteristics
Speaking about what types of bite teeth are in adults in dentistry, there are two basic categories. In the first case, we are talking about the correct occlusion, characterized by a harmonious ratio, natural facial contours, proportional shapes, and symmetry of the midline and the junction of the frontal incisors. Such an anatomical structure not only ensures the aesthetics of a smile but also allows you to fully realize the main tasks of the jaw region, which include food processing, as well as respiratory and speech functions. In turn, incorrect development is accompanied to varying degrees by pronounced anomalies, often causing patients both physical and psychological discomfort.
Physiological types of bite
Not only defective but also natural conditions are subject to orthodontic classification. The ratio is divided into three varieties, belonging to which are determined by the indications of visual and hardware diagnostics.
It is considered a reference since it provides the optimal conditions necessary for the implementation of functional tasks. It is characterized by the overlap of the lower row with the upper one by about a third of the height of the incisors, close contact when closing, as well as the absence of gaps and interdental gaps.
Bite, the distinguishing feature of which is the presence of a slight vestibular inclination, with a vector oriented towards the vestibule of the oral cavity. At the same time, the frontal units retain points of contact, and the canines of the maxillary section cover the antagonists by several millimeters.
It is diagnosed in those cases when the cutting edges of the anterior incisors, which form the visible area of the smile, contact each other when closing, while the occlusion of the chewing molars remains correct. Excludes the presence of empty areas, three and diastema, as well as signs of crowding.
The value of the correct bite
The human body is a complex biological system in which each element affects the general condition. Correct occlusal closure not only ensures the implementation of basic functionality but also eliminates side effects, such as joint pathologies, and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as heart and blood vessels. The asymmetric position of the jaws leads to an incorrect redistribution of the load, which ultimately forces the muscles to rebuild, provoking a change in posture, and causing pain and dizziness.
When the ratio of teeth is considered incorrect
Among the factors indicating abnormal development include:
- Lack of contact between antagonists.
- Defects in diction.
- Problems with chewing food.
- Distortion of facial features.
- Jaw deformity.
- The occurrence of pain syndrome.
The presence of even one of these signs is considered a sufficient basis for undergoing a diagnosis. Practice shows that the earlier deviations are detected, the easier their elimination is for the patient. Specialists of Dentika dental centers use modern methods and technologies to determine the specifics of existing bite defects and draw up an optimal treatment plan that takes into account individual indications and recommendations.
Forms of pathological development
A variety of structural abnormalities contributes to the definition of criteria for the classification of pathologies. Within the framework of the generally accepted structure, several types of anomalies are distinguished at once, defining the anatomical structure as inappropriate to the norm, and potentially capable of causing dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint, muscles, and ligaments.
One of the most common types of malocclusion of teeth is characterized by a pronounced protrusion in the frontal direction of the lower row. Patients with a similar diagnosis are characterized by a similar appearance – a massive chin, a sunken upper lip, and a concave facial profile. Speech defects are observed, as well as problems with the mechanical processing of food.
A condition in which the upper frontal incisors overlap the mandibular region by more than half. In some cases, there is pathological contact with the gingival margin, accompanied by the formation of damaged tissue areas. In addition, there is a high probability of cracks and chips on the enamel coating, associated with incorrect load distribution during chewing.
Pathological bite is characterized by the presence of a pronounced vertical gap, which is formed not only in the anterior region but also in the zone of chewing units. As a rule, it is caused by the narrowing of the alveolar arches, provoking crowding of the elements of the dentition. Symptoms are elongation of the lower third of the facial contour, a constantly ajar mouth, excessive muscle tone, speech, and respiratory function disorders, as well as difficulties associated with insufficient chewing of food.
Displacement in the lateral direction leads to the formation of improper closure, in which the antagonists are joined in an unnatural way, and the jaw itself is not sufficiently developed on one side. The anomaly is characterized by marked facial asymmetry, leading to TMJ dysfunction over time.
Another concept of an abnormal type of bite of the teeth – a photo of a similar pathology, manifested in the displacement of the lower section inward, is quite often found on specialized and thematic sites. Symptoms – lack of contact between the frontal incisors, impaired occlusion of the molars, and sloping chin – indicate the presence of prerequisites for blocking further full growth.
A condition in which individual elements are located outside the overall structure, or are rotated in the alveolar socket relative to their own axis. It is associated with discomfort, a high probability of damage to the mucous tissues of the oral cavity, as well as the risk of the formation of pathological processes, including caries and periodontitis.
Reasons for the formation of malocclusion of teeth
The cycle of development of the jaw section – one of the longest in the human body – starts during prenatal maturation and ends at the stage of puberty. At the same time, the number of factors that can have a negative impact on the process under consideration is quite large:
- Genetic background. Studies by leading experts show that heredity determines the size, shape, and features of the dentition, the nature of the situation, as well as other characteristics that are significant in terms of aesthetics and functionality.
- The quality of nutrition of the child and mother during pregnancy. Deficiency in the diet of vitamins and minerals, actively consumed by the developing organism, leads to disturbances in the overall bone structure, and, as a result, to the formation of anomalies.
- Birth trauma. Mechanical damage caused during childbirth can cause displacement of the heads of the temporomandibular joint, and in the future – the development of pathological occlusion.
- Incorrect choice of nipples and pacifiers during the period of feeding, leading to a lack of sufficient load on the tissues of the department, causes underdevelopment of the lower jaw and individual elements of the row.
- Incorrect determination of the period suitable for the transition to solid food during the eruption of milk units. Late activation of chewing functionality adversely affects the condition of muscles and teeth.
- Habits and behavioral factors, include too frequent and prolonged use of bottles with nozzles, attempts to bite and chew on the upper lip or fingers, and tilting the head during sleep.
- Deviations in terms of timing and natural sequence of formation.
- ENT diseases force the child to breathe only through the mouth for a long period of time, including such chronic pathologies as rhinitis and sinusitis.
Malocclusion in an adult: Types, Symptoms, and Treatment
Each of these factors can have an impact, contributing to the formation of malocclusion.
Consequences of the progression of defects
Some patients are sure that occlusal disorders are more of an aesthetic problem that does not affect the state of the body. However, in reality, this is not the case. One of the main problems, in this case, is disproportionate growth, which affects the soft tissues that serve as a support for the facial bones of the skull. A change in the natural ratio affects the appearance, upsets the processes of the gastrointestinal tract, and leads to a delay in the mental and emotional development of children.
Other negative aspects worth mentioning include:
- The development of arthritis or arthrosis of the joint, provokes dysfunction and difficulty opening the mouth.
- Weakening of periodontal ligaments caused by stretching due to excessive pressure.
- The spread of inflammatory foci in the oral cavity, which are formed against the background of constant contact of internal tissues with the cutting edges of incorrectly located units.
- Deterioration of the enamel, the appearance of caries, and the formation of cracks and chips, the consequence of which, to varying degrees of probability, is the loss of problematic elements.
- Gingival recession is a contraction of the mucosa adjacent to the contour of the tooth, caused by a decrease in the intensity of blood flow and loss of elasticity.
- Patients suffering from malocclusion often face the problem of sound reproduction, which causes them psychological discomfort during communication with others.
However, modern orthodontic techniques make it possible to exclude such consequences. Timely contacting Dentika dental centers will help eliminate the pronounced symptoms of an anomaly at any age, restore the natural anatomical structure, and achieve the desired result – an attractive and healthy smile.
The expediency of planned examinations
Taking into account the fact that the physiological bite of teeth in dentistry is the ratio in which the upper and lower elements are located and in contact properly, it is especially important to control the process of their development in childhood. For children who are diagnosed with an orthognathic or direct form, there is a risk of untimely – both late and early – change in milk units, which is accompanied by a change in the initial position. Preventive examinations allow you to determine abnormal conditions in the early stages.
Adult patients who have already formed a jaw region that is not characterized by pronounced deviations may need the help of an orthodontist due to the manifestation of caries, the loss of one or more teeth, erroneous prosthetics, and also because of the abuse of bad habits. During the diagnostics, the factors that are a prerequisite for changing the initially correct bite are determined, after which the doctor draws up a prevention scheme that takes into account the peculiarities of the anatomical structure.
Treatment of anomalies
In cases where the pathological condition requires medical intervention, the use of conservative and radical methods is allowed. Options recommended for correcting the occlusal relationship include:
- The installation of braces is one of the most common methods of orthodontic correction, suitable for solving problems in most situations. Mechanical structures equipped with a power arc gradually align the position of the units and exert directed pressure on the muscles and ligaments of the dentition, helping to restore the correct position.
- Wearing aligners is a more loyal technique, from the point of view of patients, recommended in cases where defects are of the initial degree of complexity. Removable mouthguards do not cause physical or psychological discomfort and allow you to gently correct the identified anomalies.
- Surgical intervention is an option for the late stages of the development of pathological processes, the elimination of which by conservative methods is not possible. Operations are carried out in order to change the dimensions of the structure and correct the position of individual elements of the series. To accelerate regeneration and reduce the likelihood of complications, laser therapy is recommended.
The orthodontic treatment plan is drawn up on the basis of the results of a comprehensive diagnosis and takes into account all possible indications and contraindications.
Prevention of anomalies
In the absence of a genetic predisposition, competent control over the eruption of molars becomes a key factor determining the correctness of the formation of the dentoalveolar apparatus. The best option is a scheduled visit to the dentist at least once every six months. In addition, it is recommended to pay special attention to the elimination of bad habits associated with a mechanical effect on the gum tissue. A good preventive method is therapeutic gymnastics, which is a set of exercises focused on creating the correct load on the muscles.
Preserving and maintaining the functionality and aesthetic appearance of the jaw section is one of the important factors that ensure the health of the whole organism. We hope that this article has helped you understand what types and types of teeth bite a person has in dentistry.