Trauma and damage, the development of pathological processes, and congenital genetic anomalies are all factors that can affect the structure and appearance of crowns. The destruction of the row elements is often so critical that restoration with conventional composite material, and even the installation of an artificial replacement structure over the base, cannot be considered an optimal solution. In such situations, an alternative method is required, which allows not only avoids the extraction of the problematic unit but also restores its functionality and aesthetics. One of the options used in modern dentistry is dental pins, which provide the possibility of complete treatment at a minimal cost.
From a technical point of view, the product in question is a rod, optionally equipped with a thread, and integrated into the root by insertion into the dentinal canal. Such restoration strengthens the structure of the crown – the created basis allows you to move on to the next stage and eliminates re-deformation against the background of mechanical loads.
Benefits and indications
One of the main positive aspects that determines why a post is needed in a tooth, what it is, and what it is used for in dentistry is the visual aesthetics of the structure being formed. Elements that have undergone restoration do not differ in appearance from healthy units and retain the natural attractiveness of a smile. In addition, a well-performed correction:
- Restores chewing function.
- Protects the damaged base from further destruction.
- Relieves the patient from physical and psychological discomfort.
In the course of clinical diagnostics, which allows for determining the possibility of installation, the doctor takes into account several medical criteria that determine the appropriateness of choosing this technique:
- Destruction is more than 50% of the total area.
- Maintaining the root of the tooth in an acceptable condition.
- The possibility of forming a stump for future prosthetics.
The final decision is the result of a comprehensive analysis, which also takes into account the negative aspects that are characteristic of the considered treatment method.
Disadvantages and contraindications
Speaking about the disadvantages of technology, it is worth mentioning:
- The probability of making a mistake with insufficient qualifications of the doctor.
- Risk of an allergic reaction to the materials used.
- The need for depopulation of the crown.
In addition, there are several restrictions for medical reasons, including:
- Insufficient root wall thickness.
- Significant destruction of internal channels.
- Lack of access to the passage due to natural changes.
- The development of inflammatory processes or pathologies that affect the root.
Preliminary diagnostics allow the exclusion of contraindications and provide a set of data sufficient for the formation of a treatment plan.
Why put a pin in the tooth
Modern dentistry identifies five basic technologies, each of which, in one way or another, is associated with the integration of the rod:
- Building an artificial crown is a classic option that occurs in most cases.
- Preparation for the installation of a replacement structure in situations where the fixation of the prosthesis on adjacent elements is impossible due to their deplorable state or complete absence.
- Strengthening the damaged structure with a pinned tab is recommended as a preventive measure after depopulation.
- Treatment of periodontal pathologies, the protocol of which provides for the use of combined devices, including splinting.
- Performing a surgical operation to re-integrate the implant.
For each technique, a separate protocol is provided, which, among other things, determines the technical characteristics of the products used.
What are dental pins made of and what are they
A variety of models that differ in many criteria allows you to choose the appropriate option for any clinical case. So, the standard feature for differentiation is the material used for manufacturing. From this point of view, there are two main groups:
- Metal constructions. They are made of brass, titanium, palladium, as well as various precious alloys that exclude an allergic reaction after installation.
- metal-free models. They are formed from ceramics, fiberglass, gutta-percha, and other sources.
From the point of view of the shape of the product, screw, cone-shaped, cylindrical, and combined options are distinguished. According to the method of restoration – under the crown, as well as fillings “on the tooth”.
Models made of fiberglass are flexible and durable, which provides sufficient resistance to increased mechanical stress, as well as the ability to adapt to a given shape. The composition is characterized by biological compatibility with hard and mucous tissues of the oral cavity and excludes toxic poisoning or allergic reaction after installation. The configuration securely holds the structure, making prosthetics more efficient in terms of the life of the artificial rod. In addition, an aesthetic indicator is noted – unlike metal, fiberglass has a characteristic milky white color, combined with a shade of natural enamel coating, and guarantees the external invisibility of the structure.
Threaded metal pins. The dentist expands the cavity of the canal, after which, using a special key, he makes a seal. Such products have two pronounced disadvantages:
- The likelihood of damage to the root of the tooth against the background of increased load.
- The installed rod can be seen after the completion of the restoration.
Today, metal-based designs are considered obsolete, which leads to a gradual decline in their popularity. A fiberglass is a priority option in most cases, but other technologies can also be used.
Models with a transparent texture, a solid configuration, and no threaded line. They are fixed with dental cement, which has improved adhesive properties and guarantees a tight fit. After the composition has hardened, the doctor proceeds to the restoration.
Another material that is completely biocompatible. Titanium products are actively used both in dentistry and in other areas of medicine related to prosthetics, but the functional significance of implants and pins should not be confused. In the first case, we are talking about a separate independent configuration designed to completely replace the structure of the missing element of the jaw region (including the root part), while the second category combines devices that allow the implementation of endodontic and orthopedic treatment protocols.
Carbon fiber models
A variety of popular devices, the popularity of which is determined by visual similarity with natural tissues, as well as functional characteristics. Speaking about what dental pins are made of and what they are for, one should not forget that, in addition to aesthetic restoration, the priority task is to restore the functionality of the jaw section. The strength of the carbon fiber guarantees the correct distribution of the mechanical load and reduces the likelihood of root fracture to zero.
Combined combination, similar to artificial crowns. A polymer coating is applied to the metal base, giving the element a similarity to enamel, and excluding “gaps” during operation.
A technique recommended in situations where the tooth structure is destroyed by more than 50%. Pin variations are identical to micro prostheses, they are developed on the basis of an individual cast and completely close the problem unit, protecting the remaining part of the pulp.
The structure of the integrated base, which acts as the basis for the formation of an artificial crown, determines the balance and reliability of fixation. Based on this criterion, screw-type models, cylindrical and cone-shaped rods, as well as combined options are distinguished.
The choice of methodology depends on the type of future foundation. There are two protocols.
Differences in reliability are provided due to the use of screw connections. Recommended for the integration of anchor pins, however, if the parameters are incorrectly calculated, it can lead to excessive stress on the root.
A technique used in prosthetics using smooth models. Cemented anchoring in the channel eliminates the possibility of injury and overload, however, over time, the bonds can loosen, leading to the replacement of the structure.
The destruction of the crown necessitates surgical intervention. The urgency is associated with the risk of infection of the destroyed cavity, in which food residues and pathogenic bacteria will accumulate. In addition to physical discomfort and increased sensitivity, such a condition is fraught with the development of inflammatory processes – in practice, cases of deformation of the entire row are known, the elimination of the consequences of which took several years.
By default, all elements of the jaw section should be in close contact with each other. The theoretical question of what it is – a dental pin, what it consists of, and why it is needed, can be answered simply: to preserve the natural anatomical structure, excluding the displacement of adjacent units. The more loose teeth and gaps between them, the more difficult it is for the patient to perform daily functions, and the higher the likelihood of regular bouts of pain. Postponing a visit to the doctor until the last minute is not recommended because the longer the pathological condition persists, the more difficult it is to restore destroyed and damaged elements.
Malocclusion in an adult: Types, Symptoms, and Treatment
The installation algorithm provides for a number of successive stages, the list and content of which depend both on the chosen model and on related factors:
- Diagnostic examination to assess the degree of destruction and draw up a treatment plan. If necessary, hardware diagnostics is prescribed – X-ray images show the complete picture and reflect all existing anomalies.
- Unsealing of the dental canal is carried out in cases where the cavity has previously been closed with a composite material. Devitalization is also possible – the killing of the pulp, which cannot be preserved due to deep damage.
- Placement of the rod in the prepared and processed cavity. A preliminary demonstration to the patient in dentistry of examples of what dental pins are, with photo and video materials, allows you to choose the best option from both a functional and aesthetic point of view. When using fiberglass or carbon fixtures, excess parts are cut off directly during the integration process.
- Fixation with composite material and restoration of the crown. Treatments are usually divided into two visits because the adhesive to ensure a firm fit must first be fully cured.
In the first days after the operation, it is necessary to carefully monitor the condition of the problem area, noting any manifestations of discomfort. Self-analysis helps to understand exactly what shortcomings are present and adjust the design as needed. At the same time, it is important to take into account that the pain syndrome that occurs after the removal of the nerve is a natural reaction of the body and persists for two to three days from the moment of medical intervention.
Extraction of the installed support is a complex task, during which the doctor must not only remove the base but also save the element for re-restoration. The factors that determine the need to replace the artificial rod are:
- Technical flaws during installation.
- The development of inflammatory processes in the root part.
- Preparation for implantation.
- Filling deformation.
Careful adherence to the protocol avoids complications by preventing perforation of the canal walls, as well as the formation of cracks in the dental tissues.
Caring for a polished tooth
Another important factor is compliance with medical prescriptions designed to maintain the hygienic condition of the oral cavity. In the first week after surgery, it is recommended to exclude solid foods and dishes with a viscous consistency from the diet, as well as carefully following standard cleaning procedures, including using a special thread.
What to do if the pain does not go away
Surgical interaction with surrounding tissues, as well as the removal of a nerve, is perceived by the body as a stressful intervention. If the treatment plan provided for the formation of a tooth on a pin, this means that after a few days, the discomfort should completely disappear. Persistent discomfort is a reason for re-treatment to the clinic for additional diagnostics.
How to speed up gum healing
The regenerative functions of the body allow us to count on a quick restoration of the structure. The normalization of the condition is facilitated by compliance with medical recommendations, regular hygienic treatment, as well as abstinence from excessive loads on the jaw row.
With significant destruction of the crown, a possible solution to the problem is the extraction of tooth residues, followed by the installation of an implant, an inlay made of ceramic or zirconium dioxide. The specialists of the dental center “Dentika” are ready to offer various options for prosthetics, however, the priority option remains the preservation of a healthy part and the formation of a strong structure using a pin and a polymer mass.
What determines the cost of restoration
Factors that determine the final price tag include:
- Diagnostic costs.
- The cost of manufacturing a reinforcing structure.
- Preparation and installation of an artificial rod.
- Building a photopolymer crown.
The amount is announced in advance, at the stage of familiarization with the preliminary treatment plan, and can be adjusted according to the wishes of the patient.
Rapid restoration of the aesthetics and functionality of dentition is an important aspect that excludes the possibility of developing pathological processes and psychological complexes. Speaking about why pins are inserted into the teeth, it is worth emphasizing that this is one of the most effective and practical methods of dental restoration, which guarantees the achievement of the desired result with minimal investment.