Let’s take a closer look at today’s popular aesthetic restoration procedure. Let’s figure out how veneers are put on the teeth, paying attention to the features of each step of this dental operation. After that, we will go through the advantages and disadvantages of this method, and dwell on the harm, benefits, and consequences. In the article, we have collected as much information as possible so that you can decide whether it suits you or not.
This type of correction, by the way, has long been known. Yes, they began to use it massively in the last 20 years, but back in the 30-the 40s of the twentieth century, it was with its help that Hollywood actors were provided with dazzling smiles. As time went on, the technology improved, more and more specialists in the field of orthodontics learned about it, and as a result, an effective aesthetic solution migrated from the cinema to the beauty industry. Now this operation is available to everyone.
What are veneers and why are they needed?
In scientific terms, they are called neuroprostheses, and in essence, they are linings – thin plates made of composite material, ceramics, or zirconium, fixed on problem teeth with special glue.
They cover the frontal and lateral parts, as well as the edge of the incisor, without interfering with the bite, and thanks to this:
- They mask minor visual flaws, such as a slight curvature or a filling that stands out against the general background.
- They hide the yellowness and darkening of the enamel, sparkling with whiteness and brilliance.
Prevent further damage at the site of a chip or crack.
- That is, they have a complex benefit – their aesthetic effect of them is difficult to overestimate.
How veneers are placed in dentistry
There are two popular methods:
- Indirect – first, an impression is made, after, already on it – micro prostheses (all this happens in the laboratory), and only then the linings are tried on, adjusted, and fixed. In terms of time, the process lasts from 2 to 3 weeks and stretches over several visits to a specialist.
- Direct-composite materials are applied layer by layer on the problematic incisors, after which the shape of the resulting plate is corrected in accordance with the anatomical features of the bite. An experienced doctor performs this work in just half an hour (that is, he will only need to be visited once), but the option is suitable for masking minor aesthetic violations.
The choice in favor of one or another method depends mainly on the clinical picture, indications, and limitations, although the patient’s desire also plays a role. But any of them can be used only if the problematic incisors are “alive”, when they are de-pulped, the specialist should offer another solution.
How to install dental veneers indirectly
This is a complex procedure consisting of several stages. And at each stage, one way or another, individual characteristics are taken into account: the relative position of the incisors, the structure of the jaw row, and so on. But the stages of the work are always the same – there are 7 of them, and we will consider them in the order in which they go.
Primary examination and diagnostics
The orthodontist finds out the situation, and for this he:
- Checks the oral cavity – and determine how many incisors are destroyed, to what extent, and whether there is caries (if yes, it is eliminated).
- Confirms the testimony and makes sure that there are no restrictions – and finally decides whether it is worth restoring a smile in this way or you can choose some other option.
- He directs for tests (if they are needed) – for x-rays, CT scans, and so on, to identify pathologies and prevent complications.
- Examines the structure of the face – the location of the mouth, lips, and incisors, to ensure a harmonious result.
- Coordinates the results – finds out what the patient wants, together with him chooses the type and shade of the overlays.
- Carries out scanning, and makes casts – so that later on, from the pictures and the layout, make perfectly fitting plates.
At this stage, together with the orthodontist, you can see how veneers are put on teeth in stages, photos of celebrities and former patients with these micro prostheses – in order to choose that Hollywood smile that will fit just perfectly.
Treatment plan approval
To achieve the desired result, the doctor consults with other narrow specialists, for example, with a periodontist, hygienist, or implantologist. Together they decide what to do and at what stage. And already during the second visit, the patient receives a complete restoration program and can ask questions or make adjustments for each of its points.
Sample layout and its adjustment
In 7-10 days, they make a digital project of future overlays – a three-dimensional model of them, and you can really admire it not only on a computer screen but also live, printed on a 3D printer. On this basis, preliminary plates are made – they can be put on to assess how a smile looks.
But it’s not enough just to see how the veneers look like, the installation should not cause discomfort, because a person will still wear linings for many years. Therefore, MOCK-UP technology is used: an impression is taken from the layout – a “silicone key”. It is then filled with copolymer and allowed to be tried on by the patient. When the composition hardens, the layout is removed and an exact copy of future micro prostheses is obtained. In accordance with it, the shape of the overlays is corrected (as well as the final material selected).
Problematic incisors are prepared for fixing the plates – enamel is removed from their outer part. The thickness of the cut layer depends on the desired result and the structural features of the jaw.
Since this is a rather painful process, it is performed under anesthesia, there are 3 options for it:
- Dot – injection;
- General – drug sleep;
Whatever is chosen, the removal of 0.5-0.7 mm of the coating is performed under an operating microscope and with the help of binoculars. This is followed by gingival retraction to determine the boundaries of fixation.
By receiving them, the patient can understand from his own experience how veneers are installed, and how to wear such linings. They are fixed immediately for 3 reasons:
- For habituation – during those 7-14 days, while the laboratory releases permanent ones;
- To ensure that you can eat and drink normally without suffering from enamel hypersensitivity;
- To protect against those injuries to the tongue and oral cavity that could be provoked.
Manufacturing and fitting
Micro prostheses are produced using the following technology:
- A model is cast from plaster according to the impression of the jaw;
- The layout is digitized in the scanner;
- The technician compares the clinical picture with the desired result and, based on this, selects the shape of the overlays (on a computer);
- According to the data obtained, the plates are machined from a ceramic (or other) block;
- Then they are painted until they acquire a suitable shade and undergo high-temperature processing (baking).
If you want to see how dental veneers are made, you will have to search very hard for videos. Laboratories prefer to keep the manufacturing process a secret and do not let outsiders in, especially with a camera.
The fitting is carried out at the next appointment with the orthodontist: the pads are put on the gel and their fit, natural shade, and level of transparency are assessed.
For permanent use, the plates are fixed with a special adhesive that tightly connects them to the enamel. Long service life is provided not only by the strength of zirconium (ceramics, composite) but also by reliable adhesion. Micro prostheses will definitely not fall off during the meal, however, they can chip if you inadvertently bite something very hard.
The operation scheme is as follows:
- Administration of anesthesia;
- Removal of temporary overlays;
- Prevention of accumulation of moisture in places of exposure – with the help of a rubber scarf and/or thread;
- Treatment of incisors with an antiseptic and gel – to remove bacteria and ensure sufficient adhesion;
- Washing and drying the oral cavity;
- Applying for glue and planting plates;
- Transillumination with a lamp to solidify the binder composition.
At a subsequent scheduled check-up, the doctor evaluates the gums and, if necessary, grinds the micro prostheses at the right points to ensure a perfect bite. Well, then the specialist explains how to clean them.
How veneers are placed directly
The method resembles a filling, however, it has a slightly different goal – it eliminates minor aesthetic violations. Its essence is that composite materials are layer-by-layer superimposed on the surface of the cutter. Thanks to this, there is no need to grind the plates on a milling machine in the laboratory – the overlay of the desired shape is created directly in the patient’s mouth.
An experienced orthodontist performs this operation in one session and precisely selects the shade so that the smile looks as natural as possible. You do not have to wait two weeks, visit the doctor several times, or walk with temporary neuroprostheses.
Let’s see how veneers are installed on the teeth, the step-by-step instructions for implementing the direct method are as follows:
- Preparation – sanitation, treatment of caries, or other diseases (if any) is performed.
- Anesthesia is an injection of an anesthetic to eliminate pain and discomfort.
- Preparation – turning the enamel at the place where the plate is attached.
- Application of materials – in layers, with a translucent polymerization lamp after each pass, for the most accurate hardening.
- Fitting – grinding in order to eliminate small sagging, irregularities, and other defects, as well as to ensure the most natural relief of the jaw row.
In what cases are veneers placed, and who can do it
The operation of micro-prosthetics is suitable for people over 18-20 – those whose teeth are already fully formed. Accordingly, children and adolescents are better off waiting.
To undergo the procedure, a person must be healthy. Caries and other diseases of the oral cavity must first be cured.
A suitable surface for fixing the overlays is also important. If the incisor has been torn out, an implant is first placed in its place and a plate is already fixed on it.
Pros and cons of veneers
Their advantages are as follows:
- They give results immediately – a snow-white smile will appear either in 1 visit or in 1-2 weeks. For the onset of visual improvements, they do not need to be worn for years (like braces).
- They serve for a long time – from 5 to 20 years or even more.
- They look natural – indistinguishable from natural incisors and premolars.
- Easy to clean – you can use the same brush and paste as before.
- Inexpensive – much cheaper than other aesthetic solutions.
But there are also disadvantages, and these are:
- Impossibility of repair – in case of a chip, crack, or other damage, you will have to change the lining.
- The irreversibility of the operation – it is accompanied by the removal of enamel, so in the future, it will no longer be possible to walk without a plate.
- Changes in eating habits – with such micro-prostheses, it is no longer possible to eat solids (for example, nuts) and drink drinks that give a coloring effect.
Indications and contraindications
Your doctor may recommend this option if:
- The top and/or bottom row is uneven;
- The enamel has darkened and/or cracked;
- Irregularly shaped incisors;
- There are gaps between the teeth.
But the defects should still be minor.
The orthodontist will have to refuse the procedure if:
- Most of the problematic surface is sealed and/or destroyed;
- There is an incorrect bite;
- There is erasure (starting from the second degree);
- Have gum disease;
- The patient is suffering from bruxism.
Each situation is considered on an individual basis.
What you need to know before installation
You have already read how veneers are made for teeth in stages, you also looked at photos of finished smiles. Do you dare? Pay attention to the following points:
- The operation is completely safe if the preparatory procedures are carried out correctly.
- There is no upper age limit.
- Grinding is mandatory – some layers of natural coating will definitely be removed, from 0.5 to 0.7 mm.
- The condition of the incisor under the plate does not deteriorate (if it is tightly fitted).
- The overlay is non-removable, but it can be chipped, in case of any damage, a replacement is required.
- Micro prostheses last the longest if oral hygiene is observed and bad habits are abandoned.
- Biting food after fixing it is worth it carefully, it is better to refuse to chew on solid objects.
Is there any way to install it without damaging the enamel
Not yet, and don’t believe those who promise otherwise. But do not worry, turning is necessary and even useful in some ways, because it prevents the plates from layering, clinging to each other, weighing down the jaw, and inflaming the gums.
Features of the glue used
It is applied to the inside of the lining. To ensure its best adhesion, the surface of the cutter is degreased, and also covered with a pickling gel for 3 minutes, but already to protect it from bacteria. At the end of this time, the exposure site is dried and illuminated with a lamp. The excess material is then removed and the transition areas are polished.
Lumineers: indications and installation
They are ultra-thin, and they are chosen for the most minor damage:
- Chips that do not touch the bone tissue;
- Fluorosis, darkening, spots, yellowness;
- Staining of fillings;
- Coating thinning, erosion;
- Gaps between the incisors, and their underdevelopment.
Their price is somewhat more expensive than conventional records because they are made using more complex technology. But they almost do not need to be finalized (only in 1.5% of situations). It is enough to prepare a 3D model, make overlays 0.5 mm thick on it, and put them on the glue, having previously etched the enamel. The procedure is not painful – so much so that, as a rule, it does not require anesthesia.
Features of fixing micro prostheses from different materials
When discussing how you can correctly put veneers on your teeth at the dentist, you need to consider that fixation depends on their type.
- Ceramics should be formed in layers, processing after each pass and; at the end – firing, to acquire strength.
- Zirconia must be turned on an ultra-precise milling machine according to a cast and only in laboratory conditions.
- Porcelain must be made according to a 3D model, very carefully, given the fragility of a single plate.
All these nuances should be discussed with the doctor at the stage of the initial examination, even before the approval of the treatment plan, in order to choose the truly optimal type and material of the overlays.
How many teeth can veneers be placed on?
You won’t be able to protect the whole row with them. They do not withstand the load of the constant chewing. A practical solution for molars is implants or crowns.
In addition, the beauty of ceramic or other micro prostheses simply will not be visible – aestheticism is lost. Therefore, they are recommended for upper and lower ones, twos, threes, fours, and no further.
Pain after grinding, eating habits
You can watch how veneers are chosen, and how they are installed, but the video still does not tell about the feeling of discomfort that occurs between the preparation and fixation of the plates on an ongoing basis.
The patient should be prepared that within 4-5 days the incisors under temporary overlays will ache. During this period, it is better not to eat or drink something cold or hot, and even rinsing is recommended to be done with warm water. If it is really tight, it is acceptable to take painkillers, but this is usually rare.
But pronounced and unrelenting pain is not at all the norm, but a sign that the operation was performed with errors, and a reason to immediately contact the orthodontist.
How to care for micro prostheses
Clean the oral cavity more thoroughly – without changing the paste (if it does not contain abrasive particles), but three times a day and with a soft brush, as well as a thread and an irrigator – immediately after eating. Plus, every 3 months go to the clinic for polishing.
Correct nutrition – be attentive to coloring foods (berries, beets, tea, coffee, wine), do not bite with incisors protected by plates, and chew with molars.
Stop smoking – so that the pads do not turn yellow, and the gums do not become inflamed.
You have learned what veneers are recommended today, how they are placed, looked at photos of snow-white smiles after surgery, and figured out the pros and cons, indications, and limitations. Install them or not? It is up to you to decide, all the information for a balanced choice is in front of your eyes, but such overlays are definitely a relevant and interesting aesthetic solution.