Dental diseases of the teeth are a group of pathologies that affect the enamel, gums, and oral cavity, as well as jaw, and masticatory muscles. Dentists call them harmless to humans since the percentage of deaths is negligible. However, it is these disorders that determine the general well-being of the patient: they affect self-esteem and an internal sense of comfort.
Experts recommend not starting the situation and closely monitoring the condition of the dentition. Due attention allows for avoiding the occurrence of serious complications, as well as the timely detection of defects that need correction.
In the article, we analyze in detail the most common problems, as well as methods for their treatment.
Basic terms in dentistry: names and causes of inflammatory diseases of the teeth and oral cavity
It plays the most important function in the process of digestion: it is responsible for grinding food and affecting its subsequent breakdown by enzymes. In addition, there is a huge number of microorganisms that create natural microflora but are considered conditionally pathogenic. This nuance determines the fact that any dental disorders progress extremely quickly.
Among the key factors in the occurrence of dental diseases are:
- Poor hygiene;
- Mechanical injury and damage;
- Chronic ailments;
- Metabolic disorders and deviations;
- The presence of thermal stimuli in the body;
- Bad ecology;
- Hereditary predisposition.
The branch of medicine that studies the emergence and development of pathologies is called etiology. In part, it correlates with diagnostic manipulations, as it helps in determining the pathogenesis.
Classification: types of major dental diseases of the teeth
Conventionally, all violations can be divided into two broad categories – those associated with enamel damage, and those caused by processes occurring in periodontal tissues. There is another classification principle – on the basis of “carious” affiliation:
- With existing caries lesions;
- Non-carious deviations.
The second option is considered the simplest and most convenient to treat if a problem is detected at an early stage. In addition, it is easier for patients to comply with prescriptions, which simplifies the process of rehabilitation measures.
Note that congenital and hereditary pathologies stand apart. They are formed in the womb, very difficult to correct.
List of all types of the most common diseases of the teeth and oral cavity in dentistry – inflammation of the pulp and periapical tissues
As practice shows, diseases of a carious nature are most often diagnosed. They begin asymptomatically, and arise due to the active activity of pathogenic bacteria and pathogenic microorganisms, rapidly multiplying and deepening into the interdental spaces and soft tissues.
The result is the complete or partial destruction of the enamel, then lesions of the dentin are recorded. If you ignore everything in the initial stages, there is a risk that the infection will make its way to the neurovascular bundles. From there it will descend into the canals. If emergency endodontic care is not provided at this moment, it will be impossible to restore the gum around the root.
The disease consists of demineralization and damage to hard tissues, gradually leading to the formation of holes in the teeth. This is the most common ailment that affects both children and adults. Accompanied by the appearance of light brown or yellow spots, an unpleasant odor.
Pathology, the development of which is determined by previously launched various processes. As a rule, it entails tooth decay, enamel thinning, as well as pigment changes. In some cases, it can be the result of trauma that has broken the integrity of the pulp. In the acute stage, it is accompanied by an almost irremovable pulsating sensation of pain.
The next pathology develops against the background of advanced pulpitis. The main factor in its occurrence is pathogenic microorganisms, mechanical injuries, and damage, as well as drug therapy. Patients experience inflammation of the mucous and connective tissues protruding beyond the root limits. Painful discomfort is manifested when biting and chewing hard foods (apples, carrots, nuts).
Popularly known as flux. It is an inflammatory process that unfolds in the bone tissue. If the initial symptoms are ignored, the risk of progression is high. Then the teeth located in the focus of infection are first loosened, and then begin to fall out. Everything is complemented by severe edema flowing to the lips and cheeks.
Pathology is accompanied by inflammation and growths that form in the upper parts of the roots. In the absence of proper treatment, the disease progresses and reaches the granulation tissues. As a rule, it occurs due to the incorrect functioning of the body’s defense mechanisms aimed at fighting infection.
Running complication of not fully cured pulpitis. The clinical picture is as follows: a certain depression appears on the hollow root apex, which quickly fills with pus. Worries the patient for a long time. The pain is increasing.
Developmental and eruption disorders
What are the various dangerous dental diseases? Perhaps the most serious problems provoke congenital or hereditary causes. In these cases, the exacerbation does not begin due to pathogenic bacteria, pathogens, or other factors. Such pathologies, as a rule, play a symptomatic role. They signal failures occurring in the body, forcing them to take immediate action.
Pathological process, accompanied by the loss of individual units or full-fledged rows. In extremely severe stages, complete loss of teeth is noted. The disease begins to develop even in utero. The main factor is poor heredity or serious illnesses suffered by the mother during gestation. Even healthy teeth can become loose due to jaw overload.
An ailment in which extra elements appear in the oral cavity, which has an extremely negative effect on the state of bite, provokes additional speech and chewing problems. Dentists recommend removing such units, and the sooner the better.
Fusion and Fusion
A rather rare deviation is expressed in the connection of the rudiments of the teeth with dental cement. The main processes unfold even during the formation of elements. Only 1% of people are prone to this disease. As a rule, the disease is diagnosed as part of a temporary bite. In adulthood, pain is about 5-6 times less, so patients are often unaware of the presence of a problem until a visit to the dentist.
A disease that affects the crowns. It is considered infrequent – it is fixed in one case out of a thousand. Delivers both aesthetic, psychological, and physiological inconvenience. It is usually the result of chronic injury to the inner surface of the cheeks and lips, tongue. Some patients are accompanied by hypoplasia.
A malaise in which the dentition is not able to fully erupt. As medical practice shows, the problem begins to bother people due to the overlap of the gums with bone layers. Another reason is the premature loss of elements.
An ailment in which the wrong arrangement of units is fixed. The displacement is manifested as a result of deviations of the alveolar ridges from the norm. It causes psychological discomfort, violates the beauty of a smile, and prevents the chewing muscles from working correctly.
Macrodentia and microdontia
Congenital hereditary anomalies determine the specifics of development. Manifested in the wrong formation and scaling of teeth. They have a negative impact on the bite and the aesthetics of the smile. They are also extremely rare – in every 20 people (in the context of not a single state, but the whole world).
Diseases associated with enamel
What are the problems with teeth due to enamel damage? In the vast majority of cases, they are associated with violations of the structure and integrity of the series. Usually, they are the result of internal failures in the body. They are eliminated only at the moment when the factor that provoked their exacerbation disappears.
A chronic disease that develops during the eruption. Accompanied by structural damage, darkening, and loss of dentin. The reason is an excess of fluorine, due to the long-term use of fluoridated water, medicines, etc.
The deviation is usually localized on the anterior chewing row. It looks like vertically or horizontally located defects of a non-carious nature. It appears due to sudden temperature changes, aggressive chemical exposure, or due to injury.
A neglected form of local manifestations of hypoplasia. It is fixed long before the first eruption and has nothing to do with carious lesions. Outwardly, it looks like an enamel layer. Sometimes complemented by excessive sensitivity.
Pathological phenomena of a congenital nature, which is characterized by a complete or partial absence of enamel. If we talk about the external picture, then it is worth noting depigmented or white spots, rather large grooves based on the surface, as well as small depressions. It is caused by the incorrect structure of hard dental tissues. In the absence of treatment, it is supplemented by acute forms of caries.
Deficiencies are expressed in wedge-shaped cavities on the cervical region of the units. This is due to the fact that individual sections of the enamel disappear, resulting in wedge holes. The problem can be registered on any element, but more often on fours and fives.
Other dental diseases: a list of dental diseases with a photo
Next, we propose to disassemble the ailments that may manifest themselves due to teething or age-related changes.
Pathology in which there is a rapid decrease in hard tissues. It provokes thinning of the enamel, and damage to the dentin. It can hit both stand-alone units and full-fledged rows.
The process in which a violation of enamel integrity is recorded. Some areas are damaged symmetrically. The main signs: are a change in pigment, a variety of cosmetic defects, and a painful reaction to cold or spicy food.
The loss of root tissues is caused by chronic diseases, advanced periodontal disease, or progressive pulp. It can be unilateral or combined. In the absence of rehabilitation and medical therapy, tooth loss is observed.
Deposits and growths
They are mineralized residues that form above or below the gums. The main material for formation is food particles, the results of the activity of pathogenic microorganisms, as well as saliva components. They start the processes that provoke periodontitis.
List of dental diseases of a neurotic nature
Stressful periods are especially detrimental to the state of the body. In addition, as practice shows, the quality of oral hygiene is deteriorating sharply. A person simply forgets about cleaning or does not do it thoroughly enough, which increases the risk of caries. The parallel use of sedative medications disrupts the production of saliva and causes a feeling of dryness.
Gradually, all this is reflected in psychosomatics – muscle spasms and pains are found. The most common occurrence is excessive compression of the jaw.
A disorder in which there is uncontrolled grinding of teeth caused by emotional overstrain. As a rule, it makes itself felt during sleep. The reasons for the appearance include stress, prolonged depression, and malfunctions of the chewing apparatus.
This is not so much a complete disorder as a symptom. Occurs with spasms of the muscles, when the patient strongly compresses the jaw. In the vast majority of cases, the person is not even aware of the problem. It is revealed during routine examinations at the dentist.
The main diseases of the teeth in humans: what are they and how to treat them
Modern medical practice implemented in the dental clinic “Dentika” actively uses innovative methods of diagnosis and treatment. Almost any disease can be eliminated provided that you seek help in a timely manner, as well as the fulfillment of all doctor’s prescriptions and prescriptions. Among the activities used by dentists are:
- Surgical intervention;
- Aesthetic correction.
In addition, professional hygiene methods are used: bleaching, restoration, etc.
Above, we examined in detail what dental diseases are called, and what are the main causes of their appearance. Now let’s talk about preventive measures to avoid serious problems and pathologies.
If there are strange sensations in the mouth, it is recommended to immediately make an appointment with the dentist. He will conduct an initial examination, and draw up an individual treatment program. However, in some cases, it is possible not to resort to aggressive measures of influence – to confine ourselves to supportive manipulations.
So, what should be done to prevent the development of diseases?
- Do not ignore the symptoms that appear – immediately go to the doctor.
- Do not start the disease, follow all dental recommendations and prescriptions.
- Get professional check-ups every six months.
- Maintain hygiene at home, and use only high-quality products.
- Do not forget about professional hygiene – ultrasonic cleaning should be done every six months or a year.
In addition, it is important to adhere to the principles of proper nutrition and to give up bad habits.
Dentistry deals with the study of the etiology, symptoms, and treatment features of the most common dental diseases. There are a huge number of reasons that provoke problems in the oral cavity. Some of them are easily eliminated, and others are subject to only partial correction. However, for both cases, the rule is true: the sooner you start working on the treatment of dentition, the higher the likelihood of a favorable outcome. That is why it is important not to let everything take its course, and to regularly undergo medical examinations.