Today we are exploring How Does a Deep Bite Affect Your Oral Health? Developmental defects of the jaw region are common, occurring in nine cases out of ten. Often, deviations do not cause significant discomfort to patients, since they do not affect the aesthetics and functionality of the teeth, being limited to a slight unevenness in the position of individual units of the row. However, there are also pronounced anomalies, in which the closure of the upper and lower jaws is noticeably disturbed and worsens the appearance and the general condition of the apparatus. One of the options for such manifestations, included in the orthodontic classification, is a deep bite. In what it is, what threatens it, what forms and signs it has, and also how to correct the situation, we will understand in this article.
An unnatural ratio of antagonists, characterized by a significant – from 60% to 100% – vertical overlap of the mandibular row, is associated with an increased load on the incisors and chewing molars that occurs during the mechanical processing of food. The pathological condition is caused by various factors, affects facial symmetry, and anatomical aesthetics, and can provoke the development of complex diseases that require complex and radical medical intervention. To be convinced of the significance of the anomaly, it is enough to look on the Internet for a photo of how the face changes in adults and children with a deep bite – the treatment and correction of the defect is a prerequisite for restoring the natural anatomical structure.
The list of characteristic features is determined by the severity of the pathology. So, in the early stages, the only form of manifestation is the formation of small chips and cracks on the surface of the enamel, almost invisible to the naked eye. The cause of mechanical damage is the pressure of the elements of the lower row on the tissues of the palatal surface adjacent to the base of the upper teeth, as well as constant contact with the area of the cutting edge, while in the normal state, the load is distributed evenly.
An untimely appeal to the orthodontist is often due to the absence of pronounced symptoms that could cause significant physical inconvenience to the patient. Among the manifestations characteristic of the middle stage, include:
- Intense abrasion of enamel from the lingual side of the upper incisors and the frontal covering of the mandibular elements is caused by constant contact and leads to increased sensitivity in problem segments.
- Change in the facial contour, expressed in a decrease in the height of the lower third, as well as related problems with diction and food processing.
- Development of TMJ dysfunction. Accompanied by extraneous sounds, painful sensations, as well as limitation of mobility.
- A noticeable deviation in the position of the lips leads to a violation of the closure.
A severe degree is characterized by the diagnosis of pronounced anomalies of the skeletal structure, including a combination of macrognathia and microgenia, which violates the proportions of the face (“bird shape”). The incisors constantly injure the palate, which causes chronic inflammation of the tissues, painful sensations when eating, as well as other negative consequences that require medical intervention.
Causes of deep bite
Studies show that the defect manifests itself with the same frequency in patients of different age groups, and makes up about a fifth of the total number of diagnosed cases. At the same time, in most children it has an innate character and is first detected during the milk period, subsequently losing its severity against the background of a natural change. However, the presence of such pathology in the anamnesis is the basis for increased attention and regular orthodontic control, which excludes the development of relapse.
Among the factors that increase the likelihood of an abnormal deep bite in a child – and this is also confirmed by practical observations – are bad habits, including constant lip biting, mouth breathing against the background of prolonged ENT diseases, posture disorders and systematically increased tone of the muscle tissues of the jaw. In addition, the cause may be an incorrect eruption of milk or permanent units, caused by premature dementia, a reduction in the volume of the crown, as well as other deviations. The lack of height of the indigenous elements leads to abnormal development of the mandibular row, while the absence of the upper molars provokes a displacement in the frontal direction – in both cases, one cannot count on correct occlusion.
There are other factors that can have a negative impact, and forcing you to consult with doctors about whether it is possible to correct a deep open bite in an adult or a child, and how exactly to do it.
An abnormal structure often turns out to be a hereditary manifestation that causes a specific growth of bone tissue, a decrease or increase in the size of individual elements, as well as incorrect functioning of muscles and ligaments.
A potential risk group is formed by diseases suffered by the mother even before bearing a child – including viral infections, anemia, malfunctions of the endocrine system or metabolism – as well as fetal pathologies provoked by hypoxia, pathological position, developmental delay, and other conditions. In addition, complications that arise during childbirth, associated with mechanical damage and trauma, often lead to a violation of the anatomical structure – such problems are also caused by the incorrect passage of the main cycle of motherhood.
The list of factors taken into account after birth is much longer and includes:
- Diseases of the respiratory system, ENT pathologies.
- Non-compliance with dietary guidelines.
- Defects of the musculoskeletal system (both acquired and congenital).
- Violations of the structure of the main tissues and organs, including enamel, mucous membranes,
- connecting elements, facial muscles, and so on.
- Speech, respiratory and other forms of dysfunction.
- Deviations in the development of dentition are caused by internal (diseases, dementia, tumors) and external (mechanical damage) causes.
- Bad habits that negatively affect the general condition of the oral cavity.
The presence of one or more symptoms is the basis for undergoing a diagnostic examination, which allows you to determine the source of the problem and choose the best method for its treatment.
Deep bite classification
In addition to the previously mentioned degrees, which differ from each other in the scale of overlapping of the lower incisors by the crowns of the upper row, it is also customary in orthodontics to distinguish two main varieties of the anomaly in question.
Pathology in which the dominant position of the maxillary elements exceeds the baseline of 1/3 of the total length, while the overlapped row is characterized by a violation of the occlusal ratio of the lateral units, due to a significant displacement deep into the structure. This form is associated with noticeable physical difficulties that occur when eating, breathing, and swallowing, as well as painful sensations that appear in the TMJ area.
Pronounced deep bite
An anomaly characterized by the formation of a deep supramental fold. The lower part of the face is slightly shortened or remains equal relative to the middle segment, the chin retains its usual structure, while the elements of the row remain completely closed by the upper crowns.
The pathological condition not only creates psychological and physical inconvenience for the patient but can also provoke further changes in the overall structure associated with increased stress, which the dentoalveolar apparatus is subjected to due to lack of balance. Possible problem factors include:
- Weakening of the alveolar position of the frontal units.
- The formation of chips and cracks on the surface of the enamel coating.
- Faster cutting-edge wear.
- Exacerbation of sensitivity to temperature changes.
- Promotion and deflection of the incisors forward.
- Gradual erasing of occlusal tubercles of masticatory elements.
- Formation of wedge-shaped defects.
In addition, there is a possibility of complications that are not related to the teeth in any way:
- Chronic damage to the palatal mucosa. Speaking about what to do and how to treat a deep incisor bite of teeth, it is important to remember that the constant restoration of injured cells leads to intensive copying of genetic material, and, as a result, increases the likelihood of oncology.
- TMJ dysfunction is accompanied by limited mobility, pain in muscles and joints, ringing in the ears, and dizziness, as well as – with prolonged development – the formation of degenerative changes in the articular structure.
Such situations can be avoided by timely diagnosis, within which modern complex methods are used.
Deep bite diagnostics
Clinical examinations include:
- The study of anamnesis. During the survey, the complaints that the patient has and that requires an objective interpretation are clarified.
- Visual inspection. Evaluation of facial proportions and occlusal closure, with a sequential check of each element for signs of abrasion of chewing surfaces.
- Comparison of photographs taken on both sides of the profile in the closed state of the dentition, allowing to determine structural changes and deviations.
The list of paraclinical methods includes:
- The study of a plaster diagnostic model formed on the basis of casts made using a special mass.
- Scanning with digital equipment followed by occlusion analysis in three-dimensional projection.
- Carrying out computed tomography and 3D-cephalometry, allowing to determine the skeletal class and dimensions of individual elements, on the basis of which an overall assessment of the severity of the diagnosed pathology is given.
- If dysfunction of the TMJ is detected, an angiographic examination (recording of the trajectory of articular movements) is prescribed, as well as an MRI that determines the position of the disc in the closed and open state.
The combination of procedures ensures the formation of a detailed clinical picture, based on the indications of which a treatment plan is drawn up. Turning to the specialists of Dentika dental centers, you can undergo a comprehensive diagnosis using modern technical equipment, which guarantees the accuracy of the results obtained.
Deep bite treatment
The main task that needs to be solved is the restoration of optimal occlusion from an anatomical point of view, corresponding to the skeletal basis, and providing both functionality and aesthetics of the jaw region. To achieve this goal, orthodontic and orthopedic techniques are used, the choice between which is determined by the degree of severity, as well as methods of surgical correction used in situations where other options do not provide the desired result.
Treatment in childhood
The best performance indicators are observed among patients of the younger age group, which is due to the malleable state of the emerging removable dentition. The soft structure of the bone tissue contributes to a faster displacement of the teeth – the observance of the given vector is ensured by removable plates. At the same time, the correction should also take into account the need to stop the root cause that causes the occurrence of an anomaly, whether it be bad habits or local pathologies. Otherwise, the likelihood of relapse remains, nullifying all the efforts made.
Treatment in adults
At an older age, the jaw section is already fully formed, which explains the slow response to provoked changes. In cases where the indications allow the use of conservative orthodontic methods, braces are recommended – mechanical structures equipped with a power arc. Fixed on the vestibular surface, they level the position of individual units and evenly distribute the load on the jaw region, contributing to the restoration of natural occlusion.
Significant deviations that cannot be corrected using traditional methods necessitate surgical intervention. During the operation, the doctor changes the position of the jaws and also corrects the dimensions of the skeletal structure. At the same time, the need for orthodontic correction remains, only now it acts as a preliminary stage, reducing the duration of the rehabilitation cycle. The overall recovery, taking into account pre- and postoperative procedures, ranges from 18 to 24 months.
Deep bite treatment for TMJ dysfunction
With diagnosed violations of the functional state of the joint, first, you need to relax the chewing muscles, which are in constant tension. For this purpose, a combination of muscle relaxants and a bite block is used. After that, in accordance with the protocol, the central occlusal relationship is determined, on the basis of which a removable mouthguard is designed. It keeps the jaws in the correct position, providing correction, while various types of orthopedic constructions are used to restore lost dental tissues – veneers, artificial crowns, or ceramic overlays.
Duration of treatment
The time required for a complete restoration depends on both the severity and age of the patient. The best option is to prescribe a therapeutic course during the formation of a shift row since in this case the correction of a deep bite takes no more than six months. But adults often have to wear correctors and retainers for several years – however, the efforts made are fully paid off by the achieved result.
Is it possible to refuse correction?
The presence of defects is not always accompanied by obvious inconveniences “here and now”, but they can potentially cause the development of associated pathological processes. Doctors do not recommend ignoring the existing clinical indications, because, otherwise, there is a rather high probability that future treatment will be much more costly and lengthy.
Consequences of a deep bite
Possible conditions developing against the background of the considered deviation include:
- Eating problems are caused by a lack of frontal incisor contact.
- The thinning of the enamel layer is due to increased stress on the teeth.
- The appearance of noticeable speech defects, as well as chronic injuries of mucous tissues.
- Swallowing and respiratory disorders.
- Distortion of natural and harmonious facial features.
To prevent pathology, with the exception of situations associated with congenital abnormalities, is quite simple – for this, you should regularly, at least once every six months, and starting from an early age, undergo a routine examination. At the first signs of an abnormal condition, the attending physician will prescribe a comprehensive diagnosis that allows you to establish the source of the problem and choose the best recovery option.
So, now you know what a deep bite means in a child or an adult, why it is dangerous, and what reasons can contribute to the development of pathology. Contact the dental center “Dentika” to get high-quality and timely orthodontic treatment, excluding negative consequences.