What are dental inlays, how do they differ from fillings and what are they for? Microprostheses used by dentists to restore rows are divided into several types, each of which solves certain problems in orthopedics. For the manufacture of such products, various materials are used, which have both advantages and disadvantages. The main tasks of installing this restorative element are the elimination of aesthetic problems, prevention of further destruction of the unit, as well as restoration of the chewing function of the molars. The specialists of the Dentika clinic will answer questions about how dental inlays are made in dentistry, what are the indications and contraindications for use, and also analyze the advantages over fillings.
Classification of restorative prostheses
An accessory of this type is placed by dentists if the coronal part is slightly destroyed. For this, metal, metal-free ceramics, and others are used.
Most often, the composition includes gold, as well as alloys (chrome-cobalt, silver-palladium). At first, it may seem that it is aesthetically unattractive, however, the designs are located on chewing teeth, invisible to the prying eye even with a wide smile.
This variety is much more reliable than composite fillings, therefore it is preferred on the European and American continents. Each type should be considered in more detail.
- Golden. They are considered the best in many respects. The metal involved in the production is not the traditional 585 (found in most jewelry), but 900 and higher (gold leaf). The raw material used is relatively soft, which creates minimal gaps and significantly increases the service life.
- Alloys. They are much cheaper than the previous version, however, they serve less. But such dental inlays still have advantages over fillings (compared to short-lived composites) and are considered more reliable.
There are two types: zirconium dioxide and pressed ceramics. The first is produced by milling from zirconium blanks. The manufacturing process is as follows:
- Removal with a drill of all tissues damaged by caries, creating a cavity of a certain shape;
- Removal of a cast of the jaws and the construction of a plaster model of the upper and lower rows;
- Scanning and building a three-dimensional projection of the future product;
- Automatic sawing of an accessory by a milling machine according to the specified parameters;
- The firing of the restoration element, fusing of porcelain;
- Fixation in the oral cavity.
The main advantage of zirconium is the absence of a human factor in the manufacture of the part since the process is almost completely automated. The durable frame is not inferior in reliability to metal.
Pressed ceramics are obtained by injection molding of porcelain mass at elevated pressure and high temperatures. In this way, you can achieve the perfect smile aesthetics.
It is not surprising that such a tab in the treatment of teeth by a dentist is quite rare. It costs the same as ceramic products but is not of good quality.
A significant problem is the loss of installed elements. This is due to the different coefficients of thermal expansion for metal and ceramics.
This type was used everywhere some time ago. The product is made from conventional filling composites, not in the patient’s mouth, but in a special laboratory. The quality characteristics are exactly the same as those of seals, but such an accessory costs a third more. It turns out that there is no point in overpaying and putting an almost complete analog at an inflated price.
What is a stump tab for a crown?
This is an orthopedic structure that has several components: a pin (introduced into the root cavity), and support (for fixing the artificial crown section). Such prostheses are solid and collapsible. Most often, they are used as a base under an outer, aesthetically pleasing layer of hard tissue. The main indication for installation is the destruction of the dental unit by at least 70%.
Until recently, pin parts were used in dentistry, on which the entire load was placed in the process of chewing food. Currently, components are being installed that allows even distribution of pressure over the entire surface of the damaged molar.
How to make tabs on the tooth
This is a worthy alternative to the usual filling, however, the process of creating a prosthesis is not as simple as it seems at first glance. Also, it can take a long time.
After the cavity of the diseased unit is cleared of traces of caries, an impression is made. With the help of special equipment, a three-dimensional image of the molar can be obtained. Then the specialist makes a plaster model. The finished product is mounted on cement. How are restoration elements made from different materials?
- Metal. Alloys are different.
- Ceramics. After the porcelain frame has been created, the ceramic mass is applied successively and very slowly.
- Zirconia. Obtained by milling and digital modeling.
- Composite. Under light exposure and heating, the structure is polymerized.
How to install tabs
To install the simplest-looking accessory and hide defects, you need to go through many successive steps.
- Diagnostic studies. A medical examination is not enough, the patient is sent for an x-ray or computed tomography. So the doctor will be able to fully assess the scale of the problem and develop a therapeutic regimen.
- Preparation. When damaged areas are removed, pathologies invisible to the eye can be revealed.
- An impression on which the prosthesis will be made, the choice of material and color.
- Scanning and creation of a three-dimensional model of the operated area.
- Manufacturing (how the dental inlay looks and is installed on the tooth, discussed above) of a micro-prosthesis, takes about 7-10 days.
- Processing before installation for better fixing of surfaces.
- Installation of the structure on the dental cement composition.
- Obtaining recommendations from the dentist about the rules of care, operation, and nutrition.
When is a filling used?
Purposes of application:
- Creation of a therapeutic pad for complex therapy;
- Use as an insulating layer;
- Temporary option;
- Installation of a permanent product;
- Filling of root canals.
Depending on the task, certain material is selected. Cement combines with liquids to form an elastic mass.
- Glass ionomer compositions are the most durable, reliable, and wear-resistant.
- Light-curing products are applied in layers, which allows them to cure evenly.
In what cases is the tab used
The micro prosthesis is fixed in the prepared cavity and created in the laboratory according to casts. This is a more reliable option compared to a universal filling. One of the most important advantages of this method is the possibility of restoration without de-pulping and crowning.
The product can be used in many clinical cases, especially if the problem is not solved by filling. The decision on the advisability of such an intervention should be made only together with the orthopedist, in the opposite situation, the risk of complications and repeated therapy increases.
Indications for installation
Patients should understand or, if necessary, ask the dentist about what an inlay is in orthopedics and in what cases its use is indicated. The design will not help in all situations.
You can’t do without mini-prostheses when:
- Destruction of hard tissues by more than 30%;
- Increased abrasion of molars, diagnosed by a dentist based on the results of diagnostic procedures;
- Planning for the placement of bridges (to restore the units that will serve as support);
- Too large a hole, when sealing is impractical and ineffective.
Contraindications for installation
The question of what it means and how to make an insert in the tooth disappears if such manipulations are contraindicated in a particular case. Restoration using mini-prostheses is not resorted to when:
- Small depth of the carious cavity;
- Damage to incisors and canines;
- Too large a lesion and the rapid spread of the pathological process;
- Steep slopes;
- Diagnosed bruxism (teeth grinding) of various etiologies; significant deepening of caries in the dentin layer.
Also, experts do not recommend putting tabs on the “eights”. This is a technically difficult task. If the bone tissues are significantly destroyed, it is better to resort to the extraction of a unit, since it will still not be able to fully participate in the process of chewing food.
Is it possible to restore front teeth with inlays?
Such a prosthesis is not installed if there are problems with incisors and canines. For this purpose, it is better to put lumineers or veneers.
If the crown is severely destroyed, a stump micro prosthesis hidden from prying eyes can be used. Only chewing molars are subjected to restoration.
Further care and service life
The patient should adhere to standard hygiene rules, there are no special features. However, it is important to carry out all the manipulations on a regular basis, to do it carefully, and take into account some nuances, in compliance with the cleaning technique. It is necessary to choose a high-quality paste, brush, floss (dental floss), and rinse aid.
The durability of the product directly depends on the material from which it was installed:
- Metal will last up to 20 years;
- Ceramic – up to 15;
- Plastic – usually no more than 5.
A dental inlay or filling on a tooth instead of a part of a damaged crown is installed after preparation, which in essence resembles a surgical intervention. Such actions of a doctor due to his negligence or an individual reaction of the body sometimes cause:
- Acute pulpitis;
- Secondary caries;
- Pain syndrome against the background of the infectious process.
Some people experience severe or moderate discomfort after treatment. Most often this is due to inappropriate sizes of the prosthesis, in this situation you need to visit the clinic so that the design is adjusted.
Before choosing a particular medical institution, it is important to pay attention to the qualifications of the staff and customer reviews. The better the work is done, the lower the risk of complications.
If the doctor makes a mistake, a cyst may develop due to excessive pressure of the micro prosthesis on the periodontal tissues. Also, during medical manipulations, the possibility of damage to the root part is not ruled out.
Which is better – fillings or tabs
In general, modern micro-prosthetics are considered the most preferable option for correcting defects than filling. However, this method of restoration is not without drawbacks and in the same way can lead to complications of varying severity.
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Choosing the right dentist is an important factor. No matter how modern and innovative the chosen method may be, in the hands of an inexperienced or irresponsible physician, the problem can worsen even more and lead to expensive and lengthy treatment.
Advantages and disadvantages of fillings
- Installation speed. Usually, the product is placed in one session, less often (in the presence of serious violations) – in several.
- Multitasking. This means that a huge number of tasks can be solved: temporarily protect the prepared area, provide high-quality treatment, and restore the damaged unit.
- Durability. With proper care and proper installation, the accessory can last for many years, while the rows will look attractive and fully functional.
- Versatility. You can get rid of minor or very serious defects.
- Low cost. All actions are performed by one specialist right on the spot.
- Material used. The mass is miscible with liquids and shrinks after distribution in the cavity. Voids, cracks, and chips may appear due to the resulting internal pressure.
- Preparation method. Since everything happens directly in the patient’s mouth, excessive moisture adversely affects the properties of the filling composition.
- Composites are toxic, therefore they are contraindicated in children.
Advantages and disadvantages of tabs before filling
- Long service life, reliability. Do not lose their properties over time.
- Aesthetically attractive, keep their shape, and do not shrink.
- Cracks and other unpleasant phenomena are not observed on the dental units.
- Due to the smooth surface, plaque does not accumulate.
- The anatomical shape of the molars does not change. The crown does not grind off and does not sag, as a result, a correct smile contour is created.
- High price compared to alternative restorative techniques;
- Complex manufacturing technique.
When a carious lesion occurs, it is important to understand why dental inlays are needed, how they are better than a composite filling, and when they are contraindicated. It is important to understand that the installation of such structures is not always advisable and in some cases can lead to complications, which are much more difficult to get rid of than preparing a cavity and pouring filling material into it or placing a micro-prosthesis on cement.
Before starting treatment, it is necessary to choose a good doctor who will prescribe diagnostic procedures, carefully study the results of the studies and give recommendations during the recovery period. Although almost the entire process is automated, the participation of a professional orthopedist is the key to quality therapy without unpleasant consequences.
Specialists of the center “Dentika” provide a full range of dental and orthopedic services, advise patients and offer the best options for solving problems. Sign up for a consultation by phone or leave a request on our website, and we will contact you as soon as possible.