In simple words, the dental pulp is fibrous, but at the same time quite loose connective tissue that completely fills the internal cavity. It has a large number of blood (arterial and venous), as well as lymphatic vessels, and nerve endings. On the periphery of this formation there are several layers of odontoblasts, that is, cells that develop from the mesenchyme of the dental pulp and are directly involved in the formation of dentin. But the main thing is in its calcification, which in essence is the process of excretion of calcium dissolved in them from the blood and lymph, and then the formation of a hard shell from it.
Dental pulp – what is it and where is it located: functions, meaning, definition, and characteristics
The processes that are located in the outer areas take their rightful place in numerous dentinal canals, and throughout the entire thickness of the shell. Their main function is considered trophic. Simply put – nutrition, is saturated with the necessary elements and substances. Although there are others, which we will discuss later. It is these processes, filled with a large number of nerve fibers, that react with strong pain sensations under thermal, mechanical, physical, and other influences.
In order to maintain the life support of the connective tissue, it has special vessels. Moreover, it is she who has a stimulating effect on regeneration. In turn, this can be easily traced by the example of the replacement process of dentin in caries. Another important characteristic is the barrier function of this part. It is thanks to her that harmful and pathogenic microorganisms, viruses, and bacteria cannot penetrate into the body through the root canal from the carious cavity.
What does it consist of
To understand what are the features of the structure and anatomy of the dental pulp, what it is built from, and what its main structure is, it is worth talking in more detail about each aspect separately.
If you deal with this factor, then all the components can be divided into two separate zones. The first is called the crown pulp, which successfully participates in dentinogenesis by single blasts. It has a layered, very loose, porous, and rather loose structure. At the same time, all levels are permeated through a network of capillaries and nerve fibers.
The deep layer, called the root layer, has a denser structure. It has a much smaller number of cellular elements but at the same time more collagen components. Moreover, the channels have direct communication with the periodontium through the apical foramen. It is in this way that various minerals and other substances can penetrate inside, building walls.
Thus, the dental pulp itself, as well as the dentin, constitute a single structure. The soft, capillary-permeated insides are framed by a dense top layer that protects them from external damage. In turn, the spongy pulp contributes to the formation of a harder surface. It is interesting that in the anterior this layer tends to gradually move from the coronal to the root. In molars, each layer is endowed with clear, well-defined boundaries.
Histology (structure) of the dental pulp: functions, properties, cellular and chemical composition
This part of the overall structure is rather complicated. It consists of a large number of a wide variety of elements, each of which is responsible for performing its own functions:
- Stellar cells, as well as single blasts, are directly involved in regeneration.
- Collagen and elastin fibers act as a kind of transport channel through which the body is supplied with hyaluronic acid. In turn, it protects against the harmful effects of various bacteria and toxic substances.
- Capillary filaments and vessels pass blood through themselves, filtering out everything necessary for breathing and nutrition.
- Fibroblasts, and at the same time lymphocytes with leukocytes, form an environment in which cells communicate with each other, that is, they actually ensure the functionality of the epithelium and its vital activity.
It is also worth talking about the so-called Rashkov plexus, which is formed by linking nerve processes and fibers. It is it that is capable of provoking the development of general sensitivity under the influence of various kinds of stimuli (heat, cold, mechanical damage, etc.), while innervation occurs solely due to the presence of the trigeminal nerve.
Like most of the body, it is also made up of water. Approximately 74% is the basis of its structure. Everything else is organic and inorganic matter. In order for the layers of the epithelium to be able to properly absorb and process oxygen and so on, cells usually include:
- Protein compounds;
- Acids, etc.
Some people who only remotely imagine the structure of the teeth and the principles of the body as a whole may mistakenly believe that the dental pulp is the nerve. However, it is impossible to designate it so unambiguously, because it also contains collagen and an extensive network of blood vessels.
Regardless of what kind of teeth we are talking about (temporary or permanent), the dental pulp has an almost identical structure. True, it tends to thin out over time. Before the roots are formed, in the primary version, all of it is concentrated in the coronal region. Later, the tissue begins to grow, weaving into the dental canals through the so-called apical foramen, forming a rather extensive mesh. In young children, it is distinguished by a dense, massive, and weighty structure, as well as the large size of the fibers themselves.
Growth and development tend to last throughout a person’s life. However, over the years, the processes of regeneration and restoration slow down somewhat, for which there are quite objective reasons. This is primarily due to a gradual, but constant, decrease in the number of active cells. This usually leads to a lack of nutrition, and an increase in the fragility of blood vessels and capillaries, which is why single blasts suffer, starting to atrophy, and the pulp no longer receives sufficient nutrition, as in childhood. Therefore, dentin can no longer be formed, renewed, and eventually destroyed in older people.
We have already figured out what and what departments the dental pulp consists of, and what layers are distinguished in it, it is also worth deciding on its purpose. The role is to perform several main tasks:
- Trophic. This means that it is through it that various nutrients, trace elements, and minerals enter (enamel and dentin).
- Sensory. They are responsible for signaling external as well as internal damage or irritants, which is necessary to maintain health.
- Plastic. Formation of the dentin itself, solids after mechanical influences.
- Protective. It does not allow infections to penetrate into the periodontium through the channels, supports the recovery processes, and is responsible for the elimination of dead cells.
According to scientists, most often in this area, such a pathology can develop, which is inflammation in the dental pulp. Usually, it is accompanied by quite sharp, cutting sensations.
If you do not pay attention to the problem in time, it can grow to the extent of cell death. Such a long and uncontrolled process usually leads to severe consequences and the development of periodontitis. Diagnosis is often difficult since its main methods are the assessment of patient complaints and examination by a dentist.
Prerequisites for the development of pulpitis
It is not difficult to figure out what can cause such a disease if you analyze the various effects on tissues.
Due to mechanical trauma, hemorrhage into the dentin can occur. The crown area can then acquire a clearly visible red-burgundy hue. When touched, give a sharp or aching pain. Such bruises that have not developed into necrosis do not require any special treatment. Over time, they pass on their own, when the blood is absorbed and excreted naturally.
A variety of infections, microorganisms, and bacteria tend to penetrate through the smallest cracks on its surface. Therefore, it is this scenario that is the most common cause of pulpitis.
In everyday life, it is hardly possible to inflict such damage on your own. Most often, they can occur due to medical errors, sometimes due to the negligence of a specialist in the preliminary processing of the coronal region before subsequent prosthetics. Usually, they are carried out at sufficiently high-temperature conditions, which arise, for example, due to high tool revolutions due to friction. Therefore, thermal damage can develop, which leads to pathology.
It should be understood that all complications of various diseases, as well as consequences that are not amenable to timely treatment, can lead to quite serious violations. For example, necrosis, which we talked about above, is very dangerous. The process is the death of the pulp, in which the affected cells may well spread throughout the body. You can recognize such a violation by constant, incessant aching pain, the gray-earthy color of the crown. Usually, doctors “Dentiki” de pulp during the treatment, and then clean out all the dead cells from the canals, after which they install a filling to preserve this area.
Having dealt with the parts that make up the dental pulp and the diseases that affect them, it does not hurt to find out what treatment is supposed in this or that case. This option implies that no elements will be truncated, that is, in fact, they are conservative. However, such a development of events is not always possible. The main indications for therapeutic methods of getting rid of pathology:
- The complete absence of medical intervention before.
- The patient’s age is up to forty years.
- Opening in case of mechanical damage due to trauma.
- The presence of caries in the deep layers.
- fibrous inflammation.
- Serous-purulent pulpitis.
The algorithm of the dentist’s action is extremely simple. It cleans all affected areas, removes infected parts, and treats surfaces with antiseptic and antibacterial compounds. Sometimes a special drug is placed in the resulting cavity.
There are several main methods of therapeutic intervention, called coating:
- Direct. The composition is applied directly to the damaged surface, after which it is blocked and isolated with a special gasket. This is done to protect and preserve the functionality of unaffected cells.
- Indirect. At the very bottom of the formed cavity after cleaning, an agent with antibacterial properties is laid. At the same time, it should perform the task of restoring bone tissue. In this case, regeneration occurs in a virtually natural way.
In the future, at the discretion of the attending dentist, the damaged tooth can be restored with temporary materials. If, after a subsequent examination by the doctors of the Dentika dental clinic, these places are restored, and the inflammatory process is suspended or stopped completely, which is checked by the complete absence of symptoms, permanent prosthetics are acceptable.
In some cases, conservative therapy is completely ineffective. Then the second option comes to the rescue – surgical treatment. In fact, this is just a truncation and removal of the affected part or the entire tooth. This option is recommended in a number of cases:
- Reduced patient immunity to critical levels.
- The tooth will serve as a support for subsequent prosthetics.
- Severe exacerbation of the disease.
There are several options for the development of events:
- Extirpation. It can be used for any form of pathology, it is a complete removal of soft formations.
- Amputation. This is the process of truncation of a part only in the coronal region. Usually used for various mechanical damage to the dental pulp.
Tissues can be removed without first killing them under the influence of anesthesia, which is called the vital method. However, it is not always possible to do this, due to various concomitant factors.
In such cases, the dentist usually uses the method of devitalization. This process is more complicated and has its own contraindications, but there are a few other options. It is the insertion of a special poisonous substance (toxin) into the cavity, which is carefully and securely sealed, then left inside for about twenty-four hours or more. During this time, living fibers die off. Then they can be painlessly removed. Paraformaldehyde and arsenic pastes are recognized as the most popular preparations.
After surgical extraction, even a well-filled tooth can remain painful for some time. Often, patients feel persistent discomfort when biting. If within seven days such symptoms completely disappear, then this development of events is considered normal. If even after a week the pain does not go away, you should definitely seek advice from the doctor of the Dentika medical center.
Inflammation is a rather unpleasant and serious disease that can even lead to the loss of education. Treatment of pulpitis can be lengthy, quite painful, and expensive. Therefore, it is worth paying attention to preventive measures that are easy to follow on your own:
- Rinsing the mouth every time after eating. When there is no way to use special products, even warm clean water will do.
- Proper and complete hygiene with the use of irrigators, antibacterial rinses, and floss.
- Regular preventive examinations at the dentist and the elimination of various threats and damage in a timely manner.
- Application for filling or prosthetics of high-quality modern materials.
Another important factor is a balanced diet and proper nutrition, as well as the intake of various micronutrient complexes as prescribed by a doctor. This will allow the body to receive in sufficient quantities the necessary elements: fluorine, ascorbic acid, calcium, and others.
Thus, it became clear what it is – the dental pulp, what characteristics it has, its structural features, and what kind of diseases can affect it. Without it, the tooth is called dead, since there are no vessels or nerves inside it. He does not react in any way to any external stimuli and does not receive nutrition or oxygen. In view of this, the process of its destruction may well go unnoticed and lead to its complete loss. Therefore, it is extremely important to pay attention to prevention and to undergo a regular examination at the dentist every six months. The specialists of the Dentika clinic offer competent service and timely treatment, which will help you always keep your teeth healthy.