Thin plates – ceramic or made of composite material – are installed on the surface of the enamel coating of the frontal elements of the dentition, forming perfectly straight teeth and an attractive smile. This method of aesthetic correction and restoration deservedly belongs to the category of the most popular in recent years, including due to the development of technologies that have significantly improved the technique. The absence of the need for radical surgical intervention, the restoration of the upper, and lower incisors and canines in just one session after the manufacture of the onlays, and the impressive visual result – all these are objective advantages, which, however, cannot do without incidental disadvantages. What are the pros and cons of veneers for the front teeth, how do dental micro prostheses of this category are placed, and why the procedure is not allowed to be carried out in all cases? Let’s figure it out.
From a technical point of view, veneering belongs to the direction of micro-prosthetics in dental orthopedics. The technique, which restores not only the aesthetics but also the functionality of the jaw row, provides for the placement of special overlays on the surface of the frontal units that cover both the front part and the cutting edge.
Recommendations for installation are based on the indications of the clinical picture obtained as a result of preliminary diagnostics. Various materials are used to make thin plates: composites, also used in crown fillings; ceramics – pressed porcelain interspersed with silicon dioxide; zirconium, characterized by increased strength and aesthetics, but also more expensive than analogs. The service life of prostheses, depending on the type, varies from five to twenty years, and is maintained under the condition of careful and accurate treatment, including the rejection of excessively hard products.
Varieties of dental veneers
Within the framework of dental classification, various types of micro prostheses are distinguished. Differentiating criteria can be both the manufacturing method and the material itself. The second option is used much more often and allows you to talk about the following categories.
Overlays, are also defined in terminology as therapeutic (due to the effect created) or direct (based on the method of formation). The material, similar in structure to the photopolymer group, is applied directly to the patient’s oral cavity, completely covering the problematic elements of the dentition and strengthening the system. Speaking about the advantages and disadvantages of composite veneers, the advantages of the technique include:
- Minimum installation time.
- Possibility of restoration in case of deterioration of shade or damage.
- The affordable cost is the most budget option in the category.
As for the minuses, two factors are usually distinguished among the claims: vulnerability to pigmentation, due to which the polymerized composition gradually turns yellow or dark, as well as fragility – breakage is possible even with the usual chewing process, accompanied by excessive efforts. The service life is no more than five years, but often products lose their functionality earlier.
Companies: general characteristics
A type of composite veneer, the distinctive feature of which is the shaping technique. They are created using a template, after which they are superimposed on a pre-treated enamel coating, not in layers, but entirely. The technology provides a higher density of plates, which leads to an increase in the working life of up to seven years.
Onlays, for the manufacture of which special dental porcelain is used, contain additives that increase strength. The thickness of the elements does not exceed 0.5 mm. Installation is carried out by an indirect method – just as in the case of composites, a micro prosthesis is formed in the laboratory, using impressions previously taken from the jaw row. For fixation, an adhesive composition is used, which guarantees strength and a secure fit.
The benefits of porcelain veneers include:
- Natural shade, indistinguishable from natural enamel.
- Resistance to mechanical stress.
- Service life in the range of 8-10 years.
Many doctors note that this is an excellent option for aesthetic restoration, the only drawback of which can only be considered the cost of manufacturing.
Lumineers: general characteristics
Ultra-thin overlays with a thickness of no more than 0.3 mm, eliminating the need for preliminary preparation of the enamel coating. Before fixing, it is enough to carry out professional cleaning, removing plaque and tartar from the surface. The reversibility of the procedure is an important aspect since the original structure of the row is preserved and can be restored even after the removal of the micro prosthesis.
One of the latest developments is based on the concept of digital modeling and production automation. Zirconia plates are designed using CAD/CAM technology, based on oral scan data, which guarantees:
- The tightness of the fit is due to the repetition of the anatomical features of the structure.
- Identity to adjacent elements.
- Aesthetic appearance and natural wet gloss of the surface.
- Duration of operation – up to 20 years.
The reliability of micro prostheses is determined not only by the properties of the material but also by design features. The zirconia framework serves as the base for the dental ceramic layer, thus maintaining both strength and visual characteristics.
The algorithm of prosthetics offered by the specialists of the Dentika clinics provides for the following sequence of actions:
- Preliminary preparation of problem units – professional cleaning, treatment of caries foci, renewal of previously installed fillings.
- It is choosing the right shade for future plates using the color chart.
- Preparation of the enamel coating (optional, if necessary), which allows preparing the surface for fixing the lining, and eliminating unnatural thickening.
- With an indirect installation technique, the formation of casts and the manufacture of an anatomically accurate micro-prosthesis in a dental laboratory, followed by fitting and fixing with an adhesive composition.
- For the direct method – applying a composite material to the surface, giving the correct shape, polymerization, and grinding.
Practice shows that two or three visits to the dentist are enough to achieve the desired result. The duration of aesthetic restoration – from the moment of the initial consultation, ending with a complete restoration – is about two weeks. When using composites, it is possible to implement an express method, but it is important to remember that in this case, the service life will be shorter.
Indications for installation
Veneers are designed to mask existing imperfections, even out the shape, and improve the appearance of the frontal units that form the smile zone. Among the factors that determine recommendations for dental micro prosthetics using this technology, traditionally include:
- The formation of cracks or chips on the surface of incisors, canines, and premolars.
- Pigmentation of the enamel coating, which acquires a characteristic yellow tint.
- The presence of congenital anomalies that impair aesthetic perception.
- Wear previously installed fillings that stand out against the background of enamel.
- The need to mask irregularities and interdental gaps – three and diastema.
Installed veneers eliminate the need for regular whitening and professional cleaning procedures, but do not cancel the rules of daily hygiene care. Subsequent processing is limited only to polishing, which is enough to do a couple of times a year – provided that this is required by the selected material. The pads ‘ anatomical accuracy and minimal thickness eliminate the need for long-term habituation and adaptation.
Contraindications and Restrictions
Despite the practicality and convenience, as well as the impressive visual effect achieved as a result of prosthetics, the technique is not suitable in every clinical case. There are certain limitations that are taken into account in the preliminary diagnosis:
- Missing premolars cause chewing problems.
- Abnormal bite development is expressed in a noticeable shift in the rows.
- Significant destruction of the problematic crown, excluding reliable fixation.
- The size of the previously installed filling exceeds 50% of the total volume of the tooth.
- Identified bruxism, caused by chronic pathologies.
- Extensive caries requiring prior treatment.
In addition, thin plates are not recommended for patients who regularly engage in contact sports or stunt practice. Those who want to restore the aesthetics of a smile will also have to give up bad habits, first of all, the constant desire to gnaw on hard objects, from pencils and ballpoint pens to seeds and nuts.
Benefits of veneers
Among the positive aspects that determine the demand for the considered technology of prosthetics, include:
- Duration of operation. Even the minimum five-year period for models made of composite materials is a long enough period for which you can forget about aesthetic problems with your teeth.
- Safety. The formulations used are biocompatible with oral tissues, do not cause an allergic reaction, and are durable, minimizing the likelihood of chipping.
- Pigmentation resistant. Ceramic and zirconia overlays do not darken under the influence of coffee, tea, red wine, or nicotine components so the selected shade will remain throughout the entire life cycle of micro prostheses.
- Ease of installation. By reducing the thickness of the plates, radical preparation of the base enamel is no longer required – it is enough to remove a small layer of the coating, without the risk of damage to the dentin and the development of hidden pathological processes.
Do not forget about the quality of the achieved result. As a result of complex restoration, the patient receives an even “Hollywood” smile, which, with proper care, remains unchanged for several years.
Disadvantages of veneers
Products belong to the category of non-removable prostheses, which implies the impossibility of self-removal without damaging the surface on which they are fixed. In cases where the patient is diagnosed with a thinning of the enamel layer, the preparation can result in negative consequences, reducing protection from the influence of an aggressive environment and pathogenic bacteria. Prosthetics become irreversible – to maintain the attractiveness of the dentition, you will either need to replace the linings after the development of the operational resource, or choose an alternative technique, whether it is implantation or the installation of artificial crowns.
Among the factors that should be paid attention to, also include the existing anomalies in the development of the maxillary region. In case of violation of occlusal closure, there is a risk of a change in diction, which will require additional adaptation. In addition, the units that serve as the basis for fixing the plates remain uncovered from the inside, which leads to the possibility of gradual staining, darkening, and destruction. To prevent such problems helps to give up bad habits, as well as strict adherence to medical recommendations.
It is also worth noting that the manufacture and installation of veneers should be carried out exclusively by specialists with the appropriate qualifications. Violation of technology, as a rule, turns into negative consequences:
- Darkening of the prosthesis due to loose contact.
- Incorrect shape, causing tissue damage by protruding edges.
- Increasing the susceptibility of teeth to stress and temperature changes.
Discomfort that persists for several days after prosthetics is the basis for a second visit to the doctor and the elimination of the problem.
Benefit and harm
The advantages and disadvantages of veneers determine the appropriateness of choosing a technique for a particular clinical situation. Micro prostheses are great for restoring the shape and whiteness of the dentition, but they do not eliminate existing defects, but only mask them, which over time can lead to new problems. You should also not forget about the possible consequences of preparation, against which the sensitivity of premolars, which are more actively involved in the chewing process, than incisors or canines, is exacerbated. Before making a final decision on the installation, it is recommended to consult with the specialists of Dentika dental clinics, who are always ready to suggest the best solution.
Cost and service life
When considering the pros and cons of veneers, prices tend to be a significant factor as well. Aesthetic restoration is painstaking work that requires certain skills and efforts, the use of high-quality materials, as well as several procedures. The final cost is partly compensated by the service life of finished products, which varies from five to twenty years. These indicators are relative, since much depends on the habits and responsibilities of the patient himself, however, practice shows that the given terms can be considered quite real and achievable with a competent attitude to business.
Thus, the variability of price offers allows you to make a choice both taking into account medical recommendations and based on the financial possibilities available to the patient. One of the practical options is the installation of composite models, followed by replacement with zirconium or ceramic counterparts after adaptation and self-assessment of the benefits.
The advantages and disadvantages of veneers used to restore the functionality and aesthetics of the anterior region have been studied quite well. This is a convenient and practical solution that ensures the quality of the restoration results and guarantees the preservation of an attractive smile for many years.