Treating a Cyst in Your Tooth needs to be done as early as possible. However, the process can be hampered by late diagnosis, since the pathology tends to proceed for a long time without visible symptoms. There are several types of the disease, each of which has its causes and nuances in therapy. Often, such an anomaly is discovered by chance – for example, during a full examination before installing braces, treatment, preventive examination, or prosthetics (on an orthopantomogram). A tumor-like formation is visible on x-rays – a tooth cyst looks like a noticeable darkening in the region of the root apex.
This is a round benign neoplasm (swelling), a small fibrous cavity in the bone tissue, lined from the inside with epithelial cells and filled with liquid or pasty contents from pus. The tumor is formed for a long time and is not noticeable at first, but can become inflamed (for example, with cold, severe stress, reduced immunity, mechanical impact – shock, push).
The four most common types are:
- In the region of the alveoli of the frontal group of teeth;
- On the “eights” – due to complicated teething and poor hygiene;
- In the maxillary sinuses – as a consequence of acute respiratory diseases;
- Root, near-root, and inter-root.
A cyst should not be confused with a granuloma (granulation growth) – a similar tumor, but smaller in size and consisting entirely of epithelial cells. She usually:
- Does not have strict contours;
- Causes severe swelling and redness, but does not destroy bone tissue as significantly.
Another difference is that it is much easier to treat, usually, a conservative method (with the drug placed at the top of the root) is very effective. It is important to distinguish between these two types of formations because the approach to their therapy is fundamentally different.
Complications of a cyst on a tooth – what are the dangers and what to do to avoid toothache
Some patients are sure that since they do not experience severe pain during the progression of the disease, then it is probably not so terrible and, perhaps, will “resolve itself”. This delusion often leads to acute problems and a general deterioration in well-being (with a breakthrough of the fibrous cavity).
If the neoplasm is not treated, it may happen:
- The spread of the inflammatory process to the lymph nodes;
- Spontaneous destruction of tissue around the affected area;
- Sinusitis – a disease of the maxillary sinuses;
- Periostitis – inflammation of the periosteum;
- Osteomyelitis is a pathology of the bone marrow.
In addition, more serious consequences are possible:
- Severe deformation of the row with the subsequent need for orthodontic treatment;
- Abscesses and large purulent formations;
- In the worst case, blood poisoning, or sepsis (such patients need a transfusion, otherwise there is a threat to their lives).
Reasons for the appearance
The answer to the question “why cysts form on the teeth” is root canal infections. Usually, this is a consequence of poor-quality filling or neglected (undertreated), chronic pulpitis, or periodontitis. The body tries to fight harmful bacteria and “encapsulates” them – the result is suppuration.
Sometimes neoplasms can occur:
- With complications of the eruption of molars;
- In violation of the formation of the tooth germ (in children);
- At the site of extraction;
- Due to genetic factors;
- With problems under an artificial crown;
- Due to caries;
- After injury.
However, most often, poor hygiene or the unscrupulous work of the dentist is to blame for the anomaly.
The photo and video clearly show what a tooth cyst is and how it looks (we have already examined the signs of the formation of a dental fibrous cavity), but there are other manifestations by which it can be recognized. At the initial stage, there are almost no symptoms or they are insignificant (except perhaps a slight dull pain when pressing or chewing solid food), but after that, you can notice:
- Tubercle (swelling) on the gum;
- Enamel darkening;
- Swelling of the mucous membrane;
- Soreness, difficulty opening the mouth.
In advanced cases, the disease can be characterized by severe asymmetry of the face, fever, jumps in blood pressure, and headaches. At this time, the bone “growth” is already quite noticeable, and when pressed on it, a characteristic crunch is heard.
There are no ways to accurately determine a tooth cyst by symptoms or a photo: either an X-ray examination or a 3D tomography is required (this option is considered more reliable, as it demonstrates in detail the condition of the entire dentition). Often, such an examination is supplemented by taking cystic material for histology – this allows you to accurately confirm the diagnosis since periodontitis can look the same in the picture.
Types of anomalies
There are 7 types of pathology, which are presented in the table below.
- Radicular associated with gum disease
- Retromolar localized on the “eight”
- Residual if the infection was introduced during the resection
- Follicular when molars erupt incorrectly
- Eruption cyst when changing dairy to indigenous
- Periodontal in periodontal disease
- Primary due to genetic disorders
The origin of the problem may be:
- Odontogenic – caused by dental diseases;
- Non-odontogenic – with different pathogenesis.
Dental cyst treatment – is it possible to cure teeth and who treats them
Depending on the chosen tactics, manipulations are carried out by a dentist-therapist or surgeon. Therapy can be conservative (using a special paste) and surgical (with complete removal of the formation). The final decision on which method should be used is made by the attending physician, as it depends on many factors.
Alternative medicine offers many options, arguing that being treated in this way is completely natural, very inexpensive, and very effective (however, the effect is not guaranteed by anyone). Rinsing with solutions of chamomile and calendula, rubbing with clove oil, and garlic and even cauterization are offered.
Folk remedies for treating tooth cysts do not have a proven medical effect, but they are able to can tumor breakthroughs for some time. It is not uncommon for neoplasms to open themselves as a result of the non-traditional intervention, which contributes to the development of complications up to severe ones, in particular, those that pose a series to the patient’s health. Therefore, rinses, lotions, and other manipulations can be used only with the permission of the attending physician.
Dentists oppose self-medication with prescriptions from the Internet and magazines, especially in cases where infection of the body is possible. A tooth cyst can break through – what should a patient do at home? Unfortunately, there are no accepted methods for self-treatment of purulent formations – it is always necessary to see a dentist first. Only a specialist can solve the problem without harm to the health of the client.
The therapeutic method of getting rid of pathologies less than 0.8–1 cm in diameter is the longest and most costly, but it has a significant advantage: it does not require surgical intervention. First of all, the tooth is unsealed (if necessary), and the cyst under it is treated later. If the canals have not been treated before, the painful pulp is cleaned first.
The fibrous capsule filled with purulent contents is washed with antiseptics (perhaps several times, depending on the need). After that, the doctor injects a drug into the open cavity, which later fills the roots, but this is a temporary measure. Most likely, in the future, you will have to make a couple more visits to the dentist to change the substance, as well as for the final filling.
The doctor decides whether to remove or treat a tooth cyst: sometimes a conservative approach is not effective enough, and then a decision is made to remove the formation.
Efficiency at all stages is controlled by X-ray equipment. If the doctor found out that the therapy was successful, he restores the crown using available methods. After the procedure, it is necessary to visit the dentist for several months to make sure that the neoplasm is eliminated.
The scheme includes:
- Antibiotic agents (amoxicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and the like);
- Antihistamines at the doctor’s choice.
Depending on the situation, antifungal agents and multivitamin complexes may be prescribed, but you need to know that the latter is used only with a deficiency of vitamins and according to the results of tests.
Tooth cyst – what is it, how to treat it conservatively
Since this is a localized dental disease, local anesthesia is used during therapy, depending on the needs of the patient and the characteristics of his body. First, the crown is unsealed or opened, after which the oral cavity is cleaned and the medicine is injected into the affected area. This stage can be repeated several times if the purulent inflammation recurs. At the end of the treatment, a permanent filling is placed.
If the channels were initially treated poorly, the question arises whether to re-treat them. This raises several difficulties:
- Unsealing is a long and complicated process, you will have to spend about 2 hours in the dental chair;
- Pain and discomfort may be present at the retreatment stages;
- You need to constantly be in touch with your attending dentist, and come to him immediately if necessary.
If you are ready to observe the situation and respond to every nuance during the entire period, the doctor will most likely agree to try to correct the error, but in 20-30% of cases, his actions will still not be effective (due to factors beyond his control). Repeated therapy is often not covered by compulsory health insurance, and you will most likely have to pay for manipulations out of your own pocket. is the reason why sometimes doctors do not offer retreatment, insisting on extraction right away.
Three types of operations are used in such cases:
- Cystectomy is a tooth-preserving procedure in which the neoplasm and the moving part of the root around it are removed. It is performed both on the lower and upper jaw.
- Cystotomy is also an organ-preserving manipulation, in which only the fibrous wall is excised and the contents flow out.
- Hemisection – before removal, an examination is carried out, according to the results of which a part of the crown is excised. It is used only with a strongly overgrown tumor if it is not possible to save the bone around it.
In severe and advanced cases, the tooth is removed along with the purulent cavity.
There is also a treatment method for treating cystic formations and root canals with a laser.
Treat or extract a tooth
When the question arises “is it possible to somehow cure a dental cyst or should it be removed”, several aspects need to be considered:
- Duration of therapy – in the case of medications, it is 3-4 months, while surgical procedures take a maximum of 3-4 visits to the dentist;
- Tolerability of treatment by the patient – there are situations when it does not work (in 30%);
- If the tooth is severely damaged, it will have to be extradited, at least partially.
There are many high-quality and beautiful implants on the modern market, but doctors try to preserve dentition, resorting to the removal of elements only in extreme cases. In addition, implanted crowns are significantly more expensive and may not take root.
When surgery is needed
Whenever possible, dentists try to preserve as many tissues as possible, but there are also direct indications in which treatment can only be surgical:
- The presence of a pin and the risk of fracture when extracting the structure;
- Obstruction of root canals;
- Frequent suppuration of the tumor when trying therapeutic intervention;
- The presence of a bridge prosthesis, which relies on the causative tooth (then the crown will still have to be redone and reinstalled);
- Root perforation.
Also, removal is indicated if the tooth cyst looks like a tumor with severe symptoms – whether it is treated or not, the doctor decides.
Prevention of occurrence
There is no special recipe that must be followed so that the problem does not affect you for sure: the disease can occur suddenly, even if all the recommendations of the dentist are followed. However, there are basic rules that will help to avoid most difficulties if there is no genetic predisposition to them:
- Regular high-quality oral hygiene using good pastes and floss (threads);
- Periodic professional cleaning at the dentist;
- A timely visit to the doctor even in the absence of visible health problems;
- Treatment of any ailment immediately after its occurrence, without waiting for complications.
It is also necessary to avoid injuries (for example, during contact sports and just in everyday life), and if they occur, immediately contact the dental clinic. These rules can be considered competent prevention of the occurrence of tooth cysts.
Folk remedies for therapy are not applicable. It is better not to rinse the mouth with solutions and medicinal infusions, but to consult a dentist as soon as unwanted symptoms are detected. It is also important to be observed by a specialist for preventive purposes every six months. This will protect you from acute inflammation and sudden diseases, which, as a rule, are accompanied by a lot of money.
Methods of intervention depend on the degree of development of the pathology, the reaction of the patient’s body to medications, and individual characteristics. Is it possible to cure a cyst under a tooth without removal, what to do, and what treatment to choose – the attending doctor will advise.
The Dentika clinic employs top-level professionals who are ready to assist you every day in getting rid of even complex problems. We are working to keep you healthy.