Statistical studies based on the results of clinical diagnostic procedures show that occlusal occlusion abnormalities occur in most people. Quite often, patients are unaware of the presence of a problem, turning to orthodontists solely because of the desire to improve the aesthetics of their smile, but in fact, a pathological condition can provoke more serious consequences. The correct ratio of the upper and lower rows is characterized by tight contact of the antagonists, a small (no more than a third of the height of the crowns) overlap, as well as a natural anatomical arrangement of the elements. Malocclusion, the types of which are classified based on characteristic symptoms, requires proper treatment.
In dentistry, it is customary to distinguish between dental and skeletal forms of abnormal development of dentition. In the first case, we are talking about pathological closure caused by incorrect teething, insufficient or excessive completeness, unnatural dimensions of individual crowns, as well as defects in the formation of the alveolar process. The second category includes problems associated with deviations in the anatomical structure and position of the jaws – their correction requires the use of more radical medical techniques, which is due to the complexity of the pathology.
Reasons for development
The classification of anomalies in the growth of teeth, as well as the types and degrees of malocclusion, allows a combination of various factors. Both external and internal processes influence, starting with a genetic predisposition and ending with bad habits. Differentiation by age makes it possible to identify the main prerequisites that are characteristic of patients of certain groups.
Among the reasons affecting the formation of the dentoalveolar apparatus in the early period include:
- Heredity – studies show that anomalies are often transmitted from parents and have a similar character.
- Problems with respiratory function – prolonged oral breathing, caused by ENT diseases, leads to a violation of the physiological position and muscle strain, affecting the growth of the elements of the jaw.
- Bad habits characteristic of children – the anatomical structure is affected by the constant sucking of a pacifier or fingers, attempts to gnaw on hard objects, tongue pressure on growing units, and even a curvature of posture in a sitting position.
- Inadequate presence of mineral and nutritional components in the diet both during pregnancy and in the early stages of development of the body.
- Lack of sufficient pressure during artificial feeding, observed when using bottles and nipples with a wide opening.
Pathological and abnormal types of occlusion are also formed in the process of changing the milk set, acting as a result of premature loss of temporary units, the appearance of impacted and dystopic elements, as well as other negative factors.
Patients of the older age group are less at risk of disturbing the natural anatomical state of the jaw region, however, even after its final formation, there is a possibility of anomalies. First of all, the cause is incorrectly performed prosthetics – incorrect selection of the dimensions of the replacement structures leads to a shift in occlusion and muscle strain, provoking dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint. In addition, the systematic abuse of bad habits, the development of pathological processes, as well as mechanical damage and injury can have a negative impact.
The specificity of manifestations depends on the specific type of defect. At the first symptoms indicating the presence of deviations, it is recommended to undergo a comprehensive orthodontic diagnosis, the results of which determine the need for dental treatment. Significant features that deserve attention include:
- Violation of the occlusion of the elements of the upper and lower rows.
- Formation of gaps between teeth.
- Curved position of individual units.
- Intensive accumulation of plaque and tartar.
- Complete coverage of crown surfaces.
- Bleeding gums during hygienic cleaning.
- Deviation of facial symmetry.
- Speech defects, problems with breathing, and posture.
- Extraneous sounds and difficulty opening the mouth.
Various types and varieties of malocclusion are characterized by the presence of common features – in all cases, the patient experiences physical and psychological discomfort associated with impaired functionality and aesthetics. Muscle strain provokes increased fatigue, and can also cause regular pain that manifests itself in the occipital and cervical regions.
In orthodontics, five stages of the formation of the natural anatomical structure of the dentoalveolar apparatus are determined, and at each of them there is a possibility of the formation of deviations from the norm:
- 0-6 months – a manifestation of a sucking skill that provides a sufficient stimulating load on the tissues.
- From 6 to 36 months – the eruption of milk units makes up a temporary bite.
- 3-6 years – the preparatory stage, during which there is an active development of the jaws, which is necessary to change the completeness.
- 6-12 years – a mixed period, a gradual renewal of elements along the entire length of the rows.
- Up to 16 years of age inclusive – the final stage, as a result of which a permanent occlusion is formed.
It should be noted that the formation of anomalies is possible even at the stage of intrauterine stay, being provoked by infectious or chronic diseases, toxic poisoning, and other factors affecting the initial characteristics of the rudiments.
Types of pathological bite in dentistry
Within the framework of the basic classification based on typical criteria and symptoms, there are five types of incorrect occlusal ratios. Diagnosis of one of these conditions is the reason for medical intervention, implemented both with the help of conservative and radical methods.
A deviation is characterized by a discrepancy between the dimensions of the jaw rows, which results in a significant overlap of the lower crowns with the upper teeth. Signs include:
- convexity of the facial profile in the segment of the nasolabial triangle;
- reduced and pointed shape of the chin;
- the formation of a sagittal fissure;
- noticeable stoop due to impaired muscle function.
Pathology is often accompanied by a lack of aesthetics and functionality, problems with eating, as well as speech defects.
The reverse of the previous version of the development, in which the mandibular section is protruding forward relative to the upper row. In patients with similar anomalies, a concavity of the profile and a massive chin are observed.
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Overlapping of the vestibular surface of the lower teeth by more than 50%, accompanied by constant contact between the cutting edges and adjacent gum tissues. As a result, periodic damage and inflammation of problem areas, provoke the development of more serious pathologies. The lower third of the face looks shortened, the folds of the chin and nasolabial region are sharply defined, and the corners of the mouth are directed downwards.
An abnormal condition in which the absence of occlusal closure of antagonists is diagnosed on individual segments. There are one- and two-sided forms, for which the characteristic symptomatology is considered to be an unnatural elongation of the facial contour, constant separation or tension of the lips, as well as speech defects caused by the impossibility of correctly setting the tongue when pronouncing sounds.
And one more, closing the basic section within the generally accepted orthodontic classification, is a type of malocclusion of teeth in an adult, manifested in the form of crossing elements that oppose each other. It is formed in different departments and is accompanied by an asymmetric appearance, a change in the natural dimensions of the jaw arch, a deviation in the ratio of the labial frenulum, as well as other abnormal signs.
However, the listed varieties do not constitute an absolute and exhaustive list of potentially pathological conditions. So, for example, this type of arrangement of molars and incisors, characterized by precise closure of cutting and chewing surfaces, despite its aesthetics, is considered one of the most unfavorable. A thin layer of enamel coating on constantly contacting areas is quickly erased, which leads to the formation of chips, and cracks and requires periodic restoration using composite materials.
Biprognathic bite (protrusion)
Another deviation is more typical of patients of the younger age group, who have a habit of sucking a finger or a pacifier, and at the same time, there is a shortening of the hyoid frenulum. The natural anatomical structure suggests the presence of a gap in the anterior segment between the gum ridges, in which the tip of the tongue should be located. The lack of length leads to constant pressure on the incisors, which contributes to a forced change in their alveolar inclination.
One of the main problems characteristic of all types of malocclusion and occlusion disorders is the incorrect redistribution of the mechanical load that occurs during food processing. The result of such a deviation is:
- the formation of enamel defects in the gum area;
- unnaturally fast erasing of the protective surface;
- gradual resorption of bone tissue;
- gingival recession – exposure of root areas;
- premature dementia (partial or complete);
- pronounced sensitivity of the elements of the series;
- dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint.
Crowding of teeth associated with a violation of the anatomical structure of the jaw apparatus leads to such complications as:
- active deposition of soft plaque and tartar;
- development of gingivitis – bleeding of gum tissues;
- the formation of periodontitis and the spread of caries.
In addition, impaired occlusal closure of the frontal elements causes:
- constant dryness of the oral mucosa;
- introduction of pathogenic bacteria and microbes;
- bad breath;
- diseases of the throat and gums;
- speech defects.
The abnormal ratio of chewing units also entails negative consequences:
- malfunctions in the digestive tract due to poor-quality food processing;
- overstrain of one of the temporal joints, provoking pain and dizziness;
- asymmetry of the facial contour;
- chronic damage to internal tissues, which provokes constant regeneration and increases the risk of developing an oncological condition.
Early diagnosis can help prevent these problems. Specialists of the Dentika dental centers use up-to-date methods that help to identify and eliminate anomalies and defects in the early stages.
Drawing up a detailed picture describing the specifics of a particular pathology. The following methods apply:
- The clinical method is the most preferable for the formation of an orthodontic conclusion. It provides for the study of anamnesis, a general examination, instrumental analysis of the oral cavity and nasopharynx, as well as a study of the properties of the muscles and ligaments responsible for the work of the jaw region.
- Functional tests are assigned to determine the displacement vector of the mandibular segment, as well as to identify factors that contributed to the development of the defect. They allow us to identify deviations in the work of the TMJ, asymmetry of the skeletal structure, and occlusal discrepancies, to evaluate swallowing, chewing, respiratory and speech functions.
- X-ray photography is a hardware technique during which the orthodontist receives pictures of the lateral and frontal projection, demonstrating the presence of skeletal anomalies. If necessary, the appointment of computed tomography and orthopantomogram, reflecting the state of the root structure and bone tissue, is also allowed.
Taking into account the fact that various forms of defects belong to pathological types of occlusion, the choice of a treatment plan must necessarily take into account the individual characteristics of the anatomical structure of the jaw region.
Treatment methods for malocclusion
Orthodontic correction provides for the possibility of prescribing both a conservative and a radical course, the main goal of which is the restoration of natural occlusion. In difficult cases, it is almost impossible to do without surgical intervention, however, such conditions are usually associated with the presence of significant changes laid down during pregnancy. Sparing techniques are based on the long-term wearing of special devices and overlays. They exert constant directional pressure and force the muscles and ligaments of the jaw region to “remember” the desired position.
Correction with braces
This is perhaps the most common option, suitable for eliminating defects of minor and moderate severity. Modern designs differ markedly from the cumbersome and inconvenient systems of the past and provide a comfortable and effective treatment of malocclusion. For those who are worried about maintaining the aesthetics of a smile for the period of correction, it is recommended to pay attention to the lingual models offered by the specialists of Dentika dental centers. Designs placed on the inside of the dentition are invisible when communicating with others and allow you not to worry about your appearance.
Timely diagnosis of anomalies is the key to successful treatment, but it is best to make a little effort to help prevent their occurrence. The easiest option is to regularly undergo a routine examination at least once every six months (starting from an early age). Identification of the primary prerequisites for the development of a pathological condition allows you to promptly prescribe a preventive course and eliminate possible negative consequences. In addition, during the period of formation of milk teeth, it is worth paying special attention to the diet and bad habits of the child, since systematic mechanical action is often the main cause of deviations from the norm.
The types of basic pathological bites, as well as their characteristics, are well-studied in dentistry. Existing methods of orthodontic correction, applied by the basic protocols, allow to correct of defects and contribute to the restoration of the functionality and aesthetics of the dentition at any age.