About a fifth of all adult inhabitants of the planet is wondering how to remove the gaps between teeth. Diastemas appear for various reasons: from hereditary predisposition to deformity due to bad habits.
An aesthetic defect always attracts the attention of others, because it involves the central incisors, which are visible to the naked eye, regardless of the extent of the problem. Therefore, patients may experience not only dental pathologies but also complexes.
Modern medicine does not stand still: there are many ways to get rid of chinks effectively and with minimal trauma. The optimal method should be selected exclusively by the doctor based on the clinical picture and the financial capabilities of the person.
How is a diastema different from a trema?
People often unknowingly confuse these concepts. The differences lie in the localization of the interdental spaces. In the first case, we are talking about the gap exclusively in the “ones” (why gaps appear between the front teeth in adults and babies will be discussed below), located on the upper or lower jaw. Sometimes the distance reaches a centimeter, but gaps of 2-5 mm are more common. The problem is diagnosed in 50% of preschoolers with temporary occlusion and in about ? of men and women with permanent ones.
Another type of gap can be localized in various parts of both rows, but not in the center. The location of the defect depends on the factors that provoked its formation.
What are diastemas: what causes them
There are many varieties according to different criteria. These are classifications according to etiology, localization, and type of displacement. False and true are separated into separate blocks. The first is found in children and disappears as they develop. In the second case, there is a pathology in the anamnesis, which becomes a provoking factor.
The most common causes of this phenomenon:
- Hereditary predisposition;
- Incorrect bridle device;
- Partial absence of units (dementia);
- The too-small size of the lateral incisors or their non-eruption;
- Bad habits (gnawing pen caps or other hard objects);
- Inappropriate nipple or untimely weaning from it in infancy.
Symmetric and asymmetric diastema
In most cases, the first type is diagnosed when the anterior units are removed at equal distances from the frenulum. The second option is much less common. Only one element of the row is rejected, the rest are located correctly.
Lateral deviation of crowns
The roots have the correct shape and position, only the surface part diverges. It is typical for overcompleteness and bad habits of the patient.
The rows deviate completely, affecting the basal structures. The defect usually provokes adventitia from birth, as well as the lower fixation of the longitudinal fold, and compaction of the median suture on the bone tissue.
The medial inclination of the central incisors
This is the name of the gap (gap) between the front teeth in both adults and children, which is considered the most difficult. Units deviate from the center and turn around on their axis. In most cases, this is due to supernumerary elements, as well as benign neoplasms in the bone structures of the maxillofacial apparatus.
Why is an unclosed diastema dangerous?
For most patients, a gap is an aesthetic problem. This is especially true for women who want to look attractive and smile widely without fear of the negative reaction of others. However, this phenomenon can also cause serious functional impairment. If no therapeutic measures are taken in a timely manner, the distance between the dental units will only increase. This threatens with such unpleasant consequences as:
- Speech defects;
- Malocclusion due to uneven load on the upper and lower rows;
- Caries due to excessive accumulation of soft and hard deposits in the interdental spaces and the inability to regularly remove them at home with daily cleaning;
- Inflammation and gum disease.
Whether a gap carries a serious danger can only be determined by a doctor after a visual examination and finding out the reasons for its occurrence. Sometimes experts advise simply ignoring the small distance between the incisors, especially if the patient does not feel any psychological discomfort. But there are situations when treatment is indispensable.
Is it possible to remove the gap between the front teeth: how adults and children are treated
Modern dentistry has a whole arsenal of methods with which it is possible to cope with the problem, including just one visit to the doctor. Thanks to comprehensive high-quality diagnostics, it is possible to identify the exact causes of the defect, as well as to develop effective therapeutic regimens.
Some procedures are relevant for carrying out exclusively in childhood. Others are suitable for patients of different ages. All manipulations should be performed by professional orthopedists, orthodontists, and other specialists. This means that therapy at home will not give any results.
How to get rid of the gap between the teeth and fix the defect
There are many ways to fix the problem. The choice of the appropriate option should be entrusted to the doctor. The dentist will consider the following points:
- Type of diastema;
- Its dimensions;
- Causes of pathology;
- The general condition of the periodontium;
- The financial capacity of the patient.
Some methods involve only one visit to the clinic. Sometimes the treatment may take several years.
This type of intervention is used alone or in combination with other techniques. For small children, it may be enough to reduce the degree of tension of the bridle, and the rows will gradually take an anatomically correct position. Probably, there are supernumerary incisors or fangs in the mouth, in which case not only extraction (removal), but also the subsequent wearing of caps, and bracket systems will be required.
It is best to carry out the operation at preschool or primary school age (at 5-8 years). If all manipulations are performed correctly, the gaps will be eliminated when a permanent bite is formed.
How to close the gap between the teeth with implants
Implants are non-removable constructions implanted into the bone tissue. They are used when aesthetic solutions to the problem cannot be applied. They are installed in place of the missing units, and the gaps gradually close over time.
The system is for life. There is no need to grind crowns, the smile looks natural, and it is not visible to others that the treatment was carried out.
The main drawback is the high cost (about 50 thousand rubles). There are also many contraindications to this type of therapeutic intervention.
Installation of braces
Orthodontic treatment is an effective way to remove a hole (crack) between the front teeth in adults and children. Corrective elements are glued to all units of one jaw. The orthodontist periodically changes the arcs that connect the brackets to each other. Due to this, the rows are shifted, and the gaps disappear. There are many types of systems: ceramic, lingual, metal, etc.
This is the longest variant of medical intervention, it may take 1-1.5 years. The main advantage: in this way, not only interdental spaces are eliminated, but also other aesthetic problems, for example, the bite is corrected. The therapy is suitable for patients of different ages.
There are also disadvantages. For example, it is often necessary to use both jaws at once. After completing the course, the result should be consolidated, for which it is necessary to wear retainers and caps.
Correction with materials costs at least 60 thousand rubles. If you do not follow medical recommendations, relapses are possible (a photo of a large gap between the tooth and the gum can be found on the Internet).
Crowns and veneers
The problem is eliminated for a long time but requires significant financial and time costs. If the distance is small, two overlays are enough, in more severe cases four are needed (on the central and lateral incisors).
At first, the dentist processes the outer surfaces to take casts. During the next visit to the dental office, the product is fixed on the dentition. The process takes about a week. If necessary, temporary structures made of composite materials are installed.
- Plaque accumulates less on ceramics, it is easier to clean than natural enamel, and the color will not change over time;
- High manual skills and long-term experience of a specialist are not required;
- You can choose any shade, even different from the original.
Unfortunately, in order to achieve an aesthetic effect, serious treatment is required, which also affects dental nerves. If large fillings were used for restoration, crowns are installed. In addition, the ceramic composition is quite fragile, so you will have to follow the diet and avoid eating foods that are too hard.
Veneers can last up to 15 years. If the structure breaks, you will have to change it completely.
Plates for teeth
It works on the principle of a bracket system: the guides move the rows in the right direction, and the gaps are eliminated. This method is suitable for correcting minor defects when the distance between the units is not too large. The product can be removed if necessary (for cleaning), it does not stick.
Orthodontists advise installing metal archwires before the age of 12. It is at this time that the treatment can show the greatest effectiveness, and the patient will not experience discomfort from corrective measures. Intervention together with materials will cost an average of 30 thousand rubles.
These are transparent silicone plates that do not injure hard and soft tissues. They do not put pressure on the mucous membranes, the client gets used to wearing them in a few days, and the discomfort completely disappears. In the manufacture, a silicone base is used, thickened in certain areas where correction is needed.
In this way, you can cope with small and large gaps. Depending on the complexity of the situation, the specialist will advise you to install a standard model or make it according to individual parameters using 3D modeling technology in especially severe cases. Over time, the incisors will begin to close, so a tighter mouthguard will be needed.
For maximum effectiveness, it is recommended to wear the plates for at least 22 hours a day. It is advisable to remove them only for eating or regular cleaning. On average, one product will cost 2-3 thousand rubles.
Cosmetic correction and artistic restoration
What to do if there is a gap between the front teeth of an adult or a child, but there are no other problems? Such methods are effective when all dental units are located normally, and a person is only disturbed by an aesthetically unattractive gap in front, which catches the eye of others. The incisors are built up in layers on the sides with a composite material of a suitable shade. To eliminate the defect, you will need only one visit to the dental office, an experienced specialist will cope in 1-1.5 hours.
- Absence of pain;
- Safety (this is the most non-traumatic way);
- Quick result;
- The strength of hard tissues is not violated.
- Dental units increase in size (if they were initially large, the procedure is not recommended);
- There should not be any dental pathologies, it is important to undergo treatment with a dentist in advance;
- Artificial surfaces are stained, for this reason, it is necessary to periodically polish them;
- About once every 5 years it is recommended to remove structures and install new ones;
- If the distance is very large, the artistic restoration method will not work.
Prevention of diastema recurrence
Unfortunately, patients who have undergone effective treatment often experience recurrent defects. This is especially frustrating if the recovery process took a very long time and a lot of money was spent. Poor dental intervention, as well as non-compliance with medical recommendations during the recovery period, can provoke the return of gaps.
Sometimes people refuse the help of a surgeon or the installation of a bracket system and insist on less radical methods, such as artistic restoration using composites. The problem will remain unresolved, and everything will return very quickly. Also, difficulties cannot be avoided in case of non-compliance with the advice of a specialist about wearing retention structures.
Can it be fixed at home?
There are situations when there is simply no money for treatment, but you really want to get rid of the defect. Unfortunately, the incisors cannot be corrected at home without the intervention of a doctor; only a professional using certain equipment and materials can help you with this.
The only acceptable option on how to close the gap between the lower teeth is to make a homemade analog of the bracket system. It is necessary to tighten the curved units tightly each time before going to bed for a long time. This is a relatively effective method, so there is no guarantee that it will help and not cause harm. The best way out in any such situation is to contact a qualified orthodontist.
How to prevent diastema in a child
To prevent a problem in a baby, parents should regularly take him for preventive examinations at the dentist. This is especially important when there is a hereditary predisposition to crevices, crevices, and gaps between the front teeth in the family. It is best to make visits to the dental clinic every six months.
The menu must include foods rich in phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium, as well as vitamins C, D, and group B. If children eat well, their skeletal system, including dentition, develops properly.
From a very early age, it is important to teach your son or daughter to daily oral hygiene. The absence of pathogenic microorganisms and deposits in the mouth minimizes the development of inflammatory processes that provoke problems with the central incisors. You should also carefully monitor that the child does not suck his fingers, do not chew on pens, felt-tip pens, and other hard objects.
Thus, the diastema, as the distance (large hole, gap) between the front teeth is called, is a defect that can be eliminated in various ways. The optimal method of treatment is selected by the attending physician, depending on the causes of the pathology and the complexity of the situation. Some people live with small gaps all their lives without experiencing psychological discomfort. If indications for correction still exist, it is recommended not to postpone the procedure, since an unclosed gap leads to speech defects, malocclusion, and other problems that affect the quality of life.